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Culture, Society and Health

Code: 106103 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
2500891 Nursing FB 1 2


Juan Leyva Moral

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
catalan (cat)
Some groups entirely in English:
Some groups entirely in Catalan:
Some groups entirely in Spanish:

Other comments on languages

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Jorge Casino Anton
Alba Planella i Jimenez
Caterina Checa Jiménez
Cristina Casanovas Cuellar



Objectives and Contextualisation

1. To understand the concepts of culture, ethnicity, community, society, and race.

2. To understand the Transcultural Nursing Model and the Cultural Competence Model, applying them to the resolution of clinical cases.

3. To understand the characteristics of the Biomedical Model and the Social Sciences Model and the impact on the health of individuals and communities.

4. To know the social determinants of health and discuss the impact on the health / illness of individuals and communities.

5. To understand the concepts of sex, gender, identity, and orientation and discuss the impact on the health/illness of people and communities.

6. To identify strategies to reduce discrimination and enhance tolerance towards diversity.

7. To get familiar with the intersectional analysis of phenomena. 

8. to include gender perspective within the nursing reasoning.


  • "Demonstrate an understanding of people without prejudice: consider physical, psychological and social aspects, as independent individuals; ensure that their opinions, values and beliefs are respected and guarantee their right to privacy, through trust and professional secrecy."
  • Demonstrate that the interactive behaviour of the person is understood according to their gender, social group or community, within a social and multicultural context.
  • Develop critical thinking and reasoning and communicate ideas effectively, both in the mother tongue and in other languages.
  • Generate innovative and competitive proposals for research and professional activities.
  • Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  • Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Acquire and use the necessary instruments for developing a critical and reflective attitude.
  2. Analyse for different situations the available health and social health resources.
  3. Analyse gender inequalities and the factors on which they are base from in different systems: family system, parents, economic, political, symbolism and educational systems.
  4. Identify and explore the conduct that defines the interactive behaviour of the person according to gender, group and community.
  5. Identify different explicative models of the health-illness binomial from a social perspective.
  6. Identify psychosocial components of individuals and the values and beliefs that identify you as an autonomous, independent person.
  7. Identify the factors that determine health and the central inequalities that can be observed in the social structure.
  8. Identify the intersection between gender inequality and other types of inequality (age, class, race, ethnic group, sexuality and identity/expression, functional diversity, etc.)
  9. Indicate the operations necessary to show understanding and respect for the individual as autonomous and independent individual.
  10. Recognise the hierarchical relations that are established as a result of gender in social dynamics and the specificities that can be observed in the social and multicultural context.
  11. Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  12. Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.
  13. Use theoretical knowledge acquired to establish a relationship of trust.


1. Conceptual differences between race, ethnicity, culture, and community among others.

2. Concepts of sex and gender. What is the gender perspective?

5. Sexist, racist, and lgtbiqphobic violence. Early detection and prevention. Impact on the health of individuals and communities.

6. Beliefs in health and disease in different cultural groups in our context.

7. The social determinants of health.

8. Ethno-nursing.

9. Cultural competence: awareness, knowledge, skills, and need.

10. Biopower. Biomedical model vs. social model.

11. Feminism, Intersectionality, and Gender Perspective


The course is divided into two major blocks:

1. Two hours lectures where the theoretical contents will be taught and discussion will be encouraged. These classes are taught in large groups, that is, with all the students enrolled in the subject.

2. Case discussion seminars. These activities are carried out with a medium group and each group is assigned a teacher who will monitor and teach. Attendance at seminars is mandatory.

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Lecture 30 1.2 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 10
Seminar 20 0.8 1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 13
Type: Autonomous      
Self-study 98 3.92 1, 3, 4, 8, 12


The exam is a test with multiple-choice questions with a single correct answer. This activity is individual.

At the end of each seminar, each student must present a written paper that resolves the issues worked on a case-by-case basis. In addition, this resolution of the case must be presented orally to the rest of the group and answer the questions/reflections that both teachers and students may ask. This is a group activity.

At the end of the course, each student must present a self-assessment report in which he critically, honestly, and thoughtfully explains what his strengths and weaknesses have been, as well as the causes and possible ways to solve them. This self-assessment must be quantitative and qualitative and always in relation to the achievement of the objectives set by the subject.

Any sign of plagiarism or abuse between classmates or teachers will be reported to the degree coordinator to elevate the event to the appropriate committee and take the necessary measures that may involve the immediate suspension of the subject.

Each activity must be passed with a minimum of 4 points to be able to calculate the final grade. In case of counting the subject will appear as suspended and the student will have to recover in the established dates.

Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Essays 25% 0 0 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 10
Oral presentations 25% 0 0 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 4, 8, 9, 12, 11, 10, 13
Self-assessment 10% 0 0 1, 12
Test 35% 2 0.08 3, 6, 7, 4, 8, 9, 12


  • Galao Malo, R., Lillo Crespo, M., Casabona Martínez, I., Mora Antón, M.D. (2005). ¿Qué es la enfermería transcultural? Una aproximación etimológica, teórica y corporativista al término. Evidentia, 2(4).
  • Goffman, E. (2008). Estigma: la identidad deteriorada. En Amorrortu (Ed.), Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England) (2a. ed., Vol. 2).
  • Heras González, P. (2005). La medicalización desde el punto de vista de los/as actores/actrices: la influencia en su identidad, perspectiva antropológica. En Mari Luz Esteban Galarza & J. P. Góme (Eds.), La salud en una sociedad multicultural: desigualdad, mercantilización y medicalización. X Congreso de Antropología (43-61).
  • Leyva-Moral, J. M. (2006). Homosexual y adolescente. Rol de Enfermería29(9), 11-16.
  • Leyva-Moral, J. M. (2011a). Climaterio, competencia cultural y cuidados de enfermería. Rol de Enfermería34(9), 5.
  • Leyva-Moral, J. M. (2011b). La relación entre las mujeres inmigrantes ecuatorianas climatéricas y los profesionales de la salud : una asignatura pendiente. Index de Enfermería20(4), 224-228. 
  • Leyva-Moral, J. M. (2012). El climaterio y la biomedicina: reflexiones desde la enfermería y la sociología de la salud y la enfermedad. Revista ROL de enfermería35(3), 20-26.
  • Leyva Moral, J. M. (2014). La dominación del cuerpo femenino: análisis feminista del climaterio y las prácticas de cuidado profesional. Ene. https://doi.org/10.4321/s1988-348x2014000100005
  • Lillo Crespo, M., Casabona Martínez, I. (2006) Fenómenos migratorios, competencia cultural y cuidados de salud. Cultura de los cuidados, 20, 87-91
  • Lillo Crespo, M. (2018). ¿Por qué es necesaria una mirada enfermera global hacia los cuidados y el desarrollo de la competencia cultural en enfermería? Revista Colombiana de Enfermería, 16, 13.
  • López Rodríguez, S. (2019). El devenir «mujer» en Simone de Beauvoir. Dos Bigotes.
  • Marrero González, C. (2013). Competencia cultural: enfoque del modelo de Purnell y Campinha-Bacote en la práctica de los profesionales sanitario. ENE. Revista de Enfermería7.
  • McFarland, M. R. ., & Hiba B. Wehbe-Alamah. (2018). Leininger’s transcultural nursing: concepts, theories, research, & practice . McGraw-Hill ,.
  • Pérez-Ciordia, I. (2011). Las «no enfermedades» y la medicalización. JANO00, 73-76.
  • Purnell, L. D. (2005). The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health11(2), 7-15.
  • Roura, M., Domingo, A., Leyva-Moral, J. M., & Pool, R. (2015). Hispano-Americans in Europe: what do we know about their health status and determinants? A scoping review. BMC public health15(1), 472. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1799-x
  • Serra Galceran, M., Mestres Camps, L., González Soriano, M., Leyva-Moral, J. M., De Dios Sánchez, R., & Montiel Pastor, M. (2013). Competencia clínico cultural : Análisis de la capacitación de los profesionales de la salud. Index de Enfermería22(1-2), 16-19. https://doi.org/10.4321/s1132-12962013000100004
  • Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària. (2013). Violencia de género y Atención Primaria de Salud: una visión desde la consulta. Editorial Médica Panamericana.
  • The World Professional Association for Transgender Health. (2012). Normas de atención para la salud de personas trans y con variabilidad de género. 7a edición.
  • Wehbe-Alamah, H., & McFarland, M. (2020). Leininger’s Ethnonursing Research Method: Historical Retrospective and Overview. Journal of Transcultural Nursing31(4), 337-349. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659620912308
  • Yava, A. & Tosun, B. (Eds.) (2021). Transcultural Nursing: Better and Effective Nursing Education for Improving Transcultural Nursing Skills. Ankara Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri Ltd.