Logo UAB

ELE: Error Analysis

Code: 105870 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
2504012 Spanish and Chinese Studies: Language, Literature and Culture OB 3 2


Eva Araceli Mejía Ugarte

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
spanish (spa)
Some groups entirely in English:
Some groups entirely in Catalan:
Some groups entirely in Spanish:


Given that students have demonstrated by obtaining the credits corresponding to the basic training subjects and the compulsory ones that they have acquired the basic skills, they must be able to express themselves correctly both orally and in writing. For this reason, the spelling and expression errors that they may commit will lead to a decrease of 0.20 points for each of them in all assessment activities.

The activities, practices and papers presented in the course must be original and under no circumstances will the total or partial plagiarism of third-party materials published in any medium be accepted. The possible presentation of non-original material without adequately indicating its origin will automatically lead to a fail grade (0).

It is also considered that students know the general rules of presentation of an academic work. However, they may need to apply the specific rules that the teacher of the course may indicate, if he/she deems it necessary.

Objectives and Contextualisation

The purpose of this subject is to describe and analyse the fundamental concepts around error analysis, their classification, their treatment, and their importance in the process of learning Spanish as a foreign language, with a special interest in Sinophones. It is intended to provide students with tools that allow them to identify the different linguistic-based errors (phonic, morphological, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic) that they could find in ELE students and thus be able to act in their treatment to favour language learning. At the end of this subject, students will have a theoretical-practical basis that will allow them to master the essential concepts for error analysis (1). Identify and analyse the different phonic (2), morphological, lexical (3) and syntactic (4) errors in ELE students. In addition, the student will have the necessary skills and knowledge to recognize the error as proof of learning in the foreign language and propose a treatment according to the student's needs (5).


  • Analyse the phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, lexical and semantic properties of the Spanish language and the Mandarin Chinese language.
  • Demonstrate the capacity to work autonomously, engaging in self-analysis and self. Criticism.
  • Describe the linguistic foundations on which the standards of Spanish and mandarin Chinese are based.
  • Evaluate the influence of cultural references in Chinese studies in interlinguistic and intercultural communication.
  • Identify and apply different methods and focuses for teaching Spanish as a foreign language.
  • Students must be capable of applying their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and they should have building arguments and problem resolution skills within their area of study.
  • Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  • Take sex- or gender-based inequalities into consideration when operating within one's own area of knowledge.
  • Use techniques for compilation, organisation and use of information and documentation with precision.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Analyse and compare linguistic structures in Spanish and Chinese.
  2. Analyse the structure of words according to the morphological structure: derivatives and compounds.
  3. Apply knowledge and competences acquired during professional academic activities related to Spanish grammar.
  4. Apply techniques of description and analysis to discursive pieces for the comparison of languages.
  5. Correctly identify linguistic units.
  6. Create an organised and correct discourse, spoken and in writing, in the corresponding language.
  7. Describe the morphological and syntactic structure of Spanish to analyse the differences related to morphosyntax between the Spanish and the Chinese systems.
  8. Describe the phonic structure of Spanish to analyse the phonetic differences between the Spanish and the Chinese systems.
  9. Explain grammar errors in the Spanish language.
  10. Express yourself in the language being studied in speaking and writing, making adequate use of the vocabulary and grammar.
  11. Handle concepts, principles, theories and models related to the different fields of applied linguistics for foreign languages.
  12. Identify cultural implications in grammar.
  13. Identify evaluation instrument employed to measure knowledge of a foreign language.
  14. Identify the linguistic knowledge appropriate for each level of knowledge.
  15. Identify the linguistic problems in teaching Spanish as a foreign language.
  16. Identify the non-normative syntactic structures of the Spanish language.
  17. Identify the pragmatic factors affecting the use of different linguistic structures.
  18. Identify the primary and secondary ideas and express them correctly.
  19. Identify the principal forms of sex- or gender-based inequality and discrimination present in society.
  20. Recognise the influence of cultural differences in the areas of pragmatics.
  21. Use digital tools for collecting, classifying, interpreting and analysing relevant data.
  22. Use the adequate terminology in the construction of an academic text.
  23. Use the necessary resources, both digital and non-digital (data bases, text repositories, dictionaries, reference works), for the analysis of any document, spoken or written, from a linguistic point of view.


Unit 1. Basic concepts for error analysis.

Error definition. Systematic errors and non-systematic errors. Differences between errors and mistakes. Apprentice attitudes towards errors. Errors in learning a foreign language: behaviourist, cognitivist and interlanguage theories. fossilization. Error classification.

 Unit 2. Phonic errors.

Spanish phonological system. Phonemic error and phonetic error. Errors in the vowel system: vowels, diphthongs, triphthongs and hiatus. Errors in the consonantal system. the obstructive ones The phonological distinction of sonority and aspiration. The nasals. The liquids. The phonotactic rules in Chinese and Spanish. Prosodic features: accent and intonation. The most frequent misspellings.

Unit 3. Morphological and lexical errors.

Synthetic language and analytical language. Inflectional and derivational morphemes. Gender of nouns. Gradation of adjectives. Verbs. Determiners. Pronouns. Prepositions. Restriction and breadth in semantic fields. Differences between the verbs "tener" and "haber" and the verbs "ser" and "estar".

 Unit 4. Syntactic errors.

The order of the elements in the sentence. Agreement problems between the subject and the verb. The direct object. The indirect object. Direct and indirect interrogative sentences. Pragmatics and syntax.


The students' activities are distributed as follows:
Teacher-directed activities (35%): they include classroom classes, practical classes and seminars, with a combination of theoretical presentations and discussion of all kind of texts.
Tutorials (10%): devoted to the comment and correction of problems and exercises.
Autonomous and cooperative activities (50%), which include individual study, the elaboration of reports and exercises and the resolution of problems, as well as the preparation of an oral presentation.
Evaluation activities (5%): the evaluation of this subject will be carried out through oral presentations and written tests.

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Theoretical-practical sessions 57 2.28 1, 8, 7, 6, 9, 10, 11, 15, 23
Type: Supervised      
Tutorials 15 0.6 1, 8, 7, 6, 9, 10, 11, 15, 23
Type: Autonomous      
Study and preparation of tests and papers 70 2.8 1, 8, 7, 6, 9, 10, 11, 15, 23


The subject will be evaluated continuously so that the teacher can observe the evolution of the students in terms of the assimilation and application of the contents.

The evaluation activities will be as follows:

  • Theoretical-practical test 35%: students must show mastery of the terminology and theoretical foundations seen during the sessions, in addition to knowing how to apply them in a practical way in situations that may arise in the ELE class.
  • Final test 35%: students must apply and demonstrate that they master the content seen in class by solving practical and theoretical exercises.
  • Practical teamwork 20%: students must apply the theoretical-practical knowledge learned in class through an analysis of errors and make a proposal for their treatment.
  • Oral presentation of the practical team work (10%).

Spelling, expression, vocabulary, and syntax errors will have a penalty of 0.25 each, with no limit. To pass the subject, all tests must be taken and passed (with a minimum grade of 5). Once all the grades have been added and the percentages indicated above have been applied, the final grade must be equal to or greater than 5 to pass the subject. Although it is the responsibility of the students to keep up to date with the subject, the teacher will indicate the date of each of the exams well in advance.

The grade "Not evaluable" will be obtained when the student does not take any of the tests or when a student has taken only 30% of the assessment evidence.

Make-up tests can be accessed only if the student has presented the evaluation activities whose weight is equivalent to 65% or more of the total percentage of evaluation activities and has obtained a weighted grade of 3, 5 or more of the final grade. Only the theoretical-practical tests will be recovered, oral presentations and teamwork are not recovered.

In the event of a student committing any irregularity that may lead to a significant variation in the grade awarded to an assessment activity, the student will be given a zero for this activity, regardless of any disciplinary process that may take place. In the event of several irregularities in assessment activities of the same subject, the student will be given a zero as the final grade for this subject. No evaluation activity where irregularities have been found is recoverable.

Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Final test 35% 2 0.08 1, 8, 7, 6, 9, 11, 5, 15, 18, 23
Oral presentation of the practical team work 10% 2 0.08 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 7, 14, 13, 6, 9, 10, 11, 22, 15, 16, 12, 20, 23
Practical teamwork 20% 2 0.08 1, 8, 7, 6, 9, 11, 21, 17, 15
Theoretical-practical test 35% 2 0.08 1, 8, 7, 6, 9, 11, 21, 15, 18, 19, 23


Blanco Pena, José Miguel. (2002). Dificultades lingüísticas de los estudiantes chinos en el aprendizaje del ELE. Carabela 52: 77–98.

Blanco Pena, José Miguel. (2013). Escollos lingüísticos de los principiantes chinos de español como lengua extranjera: Causas y sugerencias pedagógicas. Hispania 96.1 (2013): 97–109.

Blanco Picado, Isabel. (s.a). El error en el proceso de aprendizaje. En Cuadernos Cervantes de la Lengua Española. http://www.cuadernoscervantes.com/art_38_error.html.

Brucart, José M. (1997). La gramática en ELE y la teoría lingüística: coincidencias y discrepancias, X Congreso Internacional Expolingua.


Chen, Min. (2007). Pronombres relativos ‘que’ y ‘quien’. Tinta China 1: 28–30.

Corder, Stephen Pit. (1967). The Significance of Learners’ Errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 5, 161-170.


Cortés, Maximiano. (1998). Sobre la percepción y adquisición de la entonación española por parte de hablantes nativos de chino. Estudios de Fonética Experimental 9: 67–134.

Cortés Moreno, Maximiano. (2014). Dificultades lingüísticas del español para los estudiantes sinohablantes y búsqueda de soluciones motivadoras. SinoELE, (10), 173-208.

Fernández Montoro, Dolores. (2003). Hacia el desarrollo de la habilidad de la expresión escrita y sus implicancias didácticas en el proceso de adquisición de ELE. Universidad Antonio de Nebrija. https://www.educacionyfp.gob.es/dam/jcr:17f41c1b-19ee-42d2-984e-669cae4d40d9/2004-bv-02-08fernandez-montoro-pdf.pdf

Flege, Jim. (1995). Second language speech learning: theory, findings and problems. En W.Strange, W. (Ed.). 1995. Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Cross-language Speech Research. Timonium, MD: York Press. pp. 233-272. http://jimflege.com/files/Flege_in_Strange_1995.pdf.

Gil, Juana. (2007). Fonética para profesores de español: de la teoría a la práctica. Madrid: Arco/Libros.

Lado, Robert. (1957). Linguistics Across Cultures: Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers. Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press.

Liu, Zhao. (2019). Análisis de las obstruyentes en chino y en español como L3. Estudio acústico y perceptivo para la categorización de errores. Tesis doctoral en Filología Española. Bellaterra, España: Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.

Poch, Dolors y Alba Igarreta. (2014). Tender puentes: distancia lingüística y pronunciación. En Ferrús, B. y D. Poch (eds.), El español entre dos mundos. Estudios de ELE en Lengua y Literatura (pp. 139-157), Iberoamericana-Vervuert: Madrid/Frankfurt.

Roncero, Luis. (2011). La competencia pragmática en chino y español en la clase de E/LE en Taiwán: diferencias conceptuales, imagen pública y ambigüedad. SinoELE 4: 34–45.

Vázquez, Graciela. (1992). El concepto de error: estado de la cuestión y posibles investigaciones. Revista Nebrija de Lingüística Aplicada a la Enseñanza de Lenguas, 104-112. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41091428_El_concepto_de_error_estado_de_la_cuestion_y_posibles_investigaciones


No specific software is required.