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The Aeneid

Code: 104201 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
2503702 Ancient Studies OB 2 2
2504394 English and Classics Studies OB 2 2


Sebastià Giralt Soler

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
catalan (cat)
Some groups entirely in English:
Some groups entirely in Catalan:
Some groups entirely in Spanish:

Other comments on languages

Students must be willing to follow classes taught in Catalan and use written material in this language, but they can use in their work or their participation Spanish (or another close language).


 NOTICE: This guide has been translated into English from Catalan and may contain translation mistakes. If in doubt, the original Catalan version prevails.

The linguistic knowledge learnt in the first-year subjects "Elements de Llengua Llatina" and "Textos Narratius Llatins" and in second-year subject "Historiografia i Oratòria Llatines" are taken for granted, and will not be explained again.

To attend this subject it is highly recommended to have passed "Elements de Llengua Llatina" i "Textos Narratius Llatins".

Objectives and Contextualisation

After taking the course, students will be able to:

  • Apply quick comprehension techniques of a Latin text with the help of the dictionary.     
  • Understand a Latin text without using the dictionary.     
  • Translate a text of Aeneid up to 20 verses in a 1.30h.
  • Resolve grammatical, metric and stylistic issues related to a fragment of the Aeneid.
  • Resolve issues about the structure and argument of the Aeneid.
  • Associate the content of Aeneid with aspects of its subsequent tradition.


    Ancient Studies
  • Apply grammatical knowledge acquired in the analysis and comprehension of Latin and Greek texts.
  • Be able to express oneself orally and in writing in the specific language of history, archaeology and philology, both in one's own languages and a third language.
  • Interpret texts written in Latin and Greek to understand the history and Classical civilisations.
  • Interrelate linguistic, historical and archaeological knowledge of the ancient world with knowledge of other areas of the humanities, mainly ancient literature, philosophy and art.
  • Make a commentary on a literary texts applying knowledge of genres, metrics and stylistics.
    English and Classics Studies
  • Apply the methodology of analysis and knowledge of genres, metrics and stylistics to comment on literary texts and analyse the culture and history of English-speaking countries and the ancient world.
  • Demonstrate grammatical knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages and its application to the analysis and comprehension of Greek and Latin texts.
  • Identify and interpret literary texts of different languages, analysing the generic, formal, thematic and cultural features according to concepts and methods of comparative literature and literary theory.
  • Interpret written texts in Latin and Greek to learn about classical history and civilizations.
  • Interrelate linguistic and historical knowledge of the ancient world with knowledge of other fields of the humanities, mainly literature and archaeology.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Analyze the morphosyntactic components of a Latin text identifying those are specific of a literary genre or a particular linguistic variant.
  2. Develop holistic commentaries on a particular aspect of the Roman world based on a reading of the Latin texts proposed.
  3. Explain the context of the literary works whose characters, topics and clichés were passed down to the following tradition.
  4. Identify in the Latin texts the characteristics of a particular literary genre.
  5. Preparing an oral and written discourse in the corresponding language in a proper and organized way.
  6. Recognise the themes and clichés contained in the Latin works being studied in the European literary and artistic traditions.
  7. Recognise the themes and topics emanating from the Greek works studied in the European literary and artistic traditions.
  8. Translate fragments of the Latin works proposed.
  9. Use rapid text-comprehension techniques based on the semantic resources provided by a knowledge of Catalan, Spanish and, where appropriate, other Romance languages.
  10. Use rapid text-comprehension techniques based on the semantic resources provided by the knowledge of Catalan, Spanish and, where necessary, other Romance languages.
  11. Write a metric commentary on a Latin text in verse.
  12. Write a stylistic commentary on a Latin text.


I. Introduction to Vergil and the Aeneid

  1. Latin literature in August's time. Historical, politic & social context.
  2. Virgil. The man & the poet.
  3. The Aeneid.

II. Passages to be translated and discussed

III. Morphosyntax.

The linguistic knowledge learnt in the first-year subjects "Elements de Llengua Llatina" and "Textos Narratius Llatins" and in second-year subject "Historiografia i Oratòria Llatines" are taken for granted, and will not be explained again.

Nominal morphosyntax

  • Morphologic archaisms
  • The greek declension in Latin
  • The so-called accusativus graecus
  • Accusative / dative to indicate movement
  • Genitive/ ablative of quality
  • Time / place questions. Adverbs indicating place or time
  • Uses of prepositions. Anastrophe

Verbal morphosyntax

  • Aspect and tenses
  • Futur tense
  • Subjonctive in independent sentences
  • Imperative mood
  • Infinitive, paticiple, gerund & supin.

Sentence structure

  • Interrogative sentences.
  • Conditional sentences.
  • Uses of participle.

IV. Stylistics

  • Grammatical concordance. Hyperbaton
  • Rhythmic sequences.
  • Vowel sequences.
  • Rhetorical figures (hypallage; metonymy; synechdoche; allegory; alliteration; anaphora; chiasmus; brachylogie; ellipsis; hyperbole; hendiadys; leitotes; tmesis; abusio)

V. Latin Prosody

  • Vowel quantity and syllabic quantity.
  • Basic knowledge about vowel quantity.
  • Dactylic hexameter
  • Synalepha, synaeresis, hiatus, aphaeresis.
  • Caesurae.
  • Clausulae.

VI. Reception and Tradition of the Aeneid.




The classes will be eminently practical. The professor will dedicate time to:

  • Read, translate and comment on the proposed selection of texts.
  • Provide students with mechanisms that allow them to progressively increase the volume of translated text.
  • Read and understand texts in sight without the use of the dictionary.
  • Correct the texts translated daily by students.
  • Discuss the linguistic, literary and sociocultural content of translated texts, with a singular emphasis on aspects related to their later tradition.
  • Explain the grammatical, metrical and stylistic contents based on the text.
  • Explain de realia contents that help contextualise the text.
  • Make understand the Aeneid in its historical and littery context.
Students will have to use a bilingual university dictionary; they will not be allowed to use a school dictionary

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Reading comprehension 5 0.2 9, 10
Theoretical contents 10 0.4 1, 12, 11, 3, 4, 7, 6
Translation and commentary of texts 40 1.6 1, 12, 11, 3, 4, 8
Type: Supervised      
Exercies of prosody and translation 10 0.4 11, 8
Reading comprehension and morphosintactical exercises 10 0.4 1, 9, 10
Type: Autonomous      
Daily translation 45 1.8 1, 12, 11, 5, 9, 8, 10
Obligatory readings 15 0.6 3, 4
Study of lexicon and grammar 15 0.6 9, 10


I. Assessment

The final grade will be calculated as follows:

  • Final exam (50%). Translation and commentary of a passage of Aeneid not previous commented in class.
  • Midterm (10%). Translation of a passage of Aeneid not previous commented in class.
  • Two reading tests of Aeneid (10%).
  • Translation and commentary of a passage of Aeneid  previously commented in class (20%).
  • Active participation in class (10%).

II. Please note:

  1. The delivery of 2 of the assessment items (assignments / exercises / exams) excludes the possibility of obtaining the status of No avaluable as a final course grade.
  2. To obtain the status Pass as a final course grade is obligatory:
  • Having done both translation exams (not seen passage) and obtaining ≥ 4.
  • Having done the translation and comment of a passage previously seen in class.
  • Having done 1 part of reading test of Aeneid.

III. Reassessment

For the Re-assessment the following conditions are applicable:

  • The student must previously have been evaluated for activities that equal to 2/3 parts of the final grade.
  • The student will only can do both translation exam (= 60%).

IV. Calendar of assigments:

  • Reading test of Aeneid I-VI. 20-03-2022
  • Reading test ofAeneid VII-XII. 15-05-2022
  • Midterm exam. 29-03-2022
  • Final exam. 14-06-2023
  • Translation and commentary of a passage of Aeneid  previous commented in class. 12-06-2023

V. Procedure for Reviewing Grades Awarded

On carrying out each evaluation activity, lecturers will inform students of the procedures to be followed for reviewing all grades awarded, and the date on which such areview will take place.

VI. Plagiarism and copying

In the event of a student committing any irregularity that may lead to a significant variation in the grade awarded to an assessment activity, the student will be given a zero for this activity, regardless of any disciplinary process that may take place. In the event of several irregularities in assessment activities of the same subject, the student will be given a zero as the final grade for this subject.


Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Participation in learning activities and the activities online 10% 0 0 1, 9, 8, 10
Reading test of Aeneid 10% 0 0 3, 4, 7, 6
Translation and commentary of a passage of Aeneid previous commented in class 20% 0 0 1, 2, 12, 11, 5, 3, 9, 4, 7, 6, 8, 10
Translation of a fragment of Aeneid not previously commented in class 50% 0 0 1, 11, 9, 8
Translation of a passage not previous commented in class 10% 0 0 1, 5, 9, 8, 10


1. Aeneidos editiones.

  • Gian Biaggio Conte (ed.). Ed. Teubner, Berloni et Novi Eboraci 2009.
  • Jacques Perret (ed.), 3 vols. Ed. Les belles lettres, Paris 1981-1987.
  • Roger Aubrey B. Mynors (ed.). Ed. Oxford Classical Texts, Oxford 1969
  • Miquel Dolç (ed.). Ed. Fundació Bernat Metge, Barcelona 1972 - 1975 .
  • Henri Goelzer (ed.), 2 vols. Ed. Les belles lettres, Paris 1925 (196411).
  • Luis Rivero García; Miryam Librán Moreno et al. (eds.), 4 vols. CSIC, Madrid 2009-2011.


2. Editions with commentary


  •  Eneide, 6 vols. ed. Ettore Paratore, trad. Luca Canali, Mondadori Fondazione Lorenzo Valla, Milan, 2008-2013.


3. Manuals of Latin Syntax

Descriptive Syntax:

  • Valentí, Eduard, Sintaxi llatina. Ed. Curial, Barcelona, 1979 [revisada per P. L. Cano]
  • Ernout, Alfred - Thomas, François, Syntaxe Latine. Ed. Klincksieck, Paris, 19532.
  • Lavency, Marius, Vsus. Grammaire latine. Ed. Duculot, Paris, 1985; 19972.
  • Panhuis, Dirk, Latin Grammar. Ed. University of Michigan Press; Ann Arbor- Michigan, 2009.

Estructural Syntax:

  • Rubio, Lisardo, Nueva sintaxis latina simplificada, Ediciones Clásicas, Madrid, 1995.

Funtional Syntax:

  • Pinkster, Harm, Sintaxis y semàntica del latín, Ed. Gredos, Madrid, 1995.

4. Manuals of Latin Morphology.

  • Monteil, Pierre, Elementos de fonética y morfología del latín, (trad. de Concepción Fernàndez). Ed. Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla 1992.
  • Ernout, Alfred, Morphologie Històrique du Latin. Ed. Klincksieck, Paris (ed. diverses).

5. Manuals of Latin Literature.

  • Albrecht, Michael von, "Virgilio", en Id., Historia de la literatura romana: desde Andronico hasta Boecio, 2 vols.Ed. Herder, Barcelona, 1997-1999, vol. I (1997), pp. 622 - 661.
  • Bieler, Ludwig, "La época de Augusto" i "Virgilio", en Id., Historia de la literatura romana. Ed. Gredos, Madrid,1972, pp. 175 - 185; 185- 212.
  • Conte, Gian Biagio, Latin literature. A history, Baltimore, Johs Hopkins University Press, 1999 / Letteratura latina, Milà, Mondadori, 2002. Capítol 25: Vergil.
  • Deryck Williams, Robert, "La Eneida", en Kenney, Edward J. - Clausen, Wendell Vernon, Historia de la literatura clásica. Literatura latina. Ed. Gredos, Madrid, 1989, pp. 372 -410.
  • Holzberg, Niklas, Virgilio, Mulino, Bologna, 2006.
  • Fdez. Corte, José C., "La Eneida", en Codoñer, Carmen (ed.), Historia dela literatura latina. Ed. Càtedra, Madrid, 1997, pp. 177- 190.
  • Lana, Italo; Maltese, Enrico V., Storia della civiltà letteraria greca e latina (3 vols.). Vol. II. Dall'ellenismo all'età di Traiano. Ed. UTET, Torino 1998, pp. 675 - 689.

6. Manuals of Latin Prosody.

  • Ceccarelli, Lucio, Prosodia y métrica del latín clásico, (trad. de Rocío Carande). Ed. Universidad de Sevilla,Sevilla 1999.
  • Nougaret, Louis, Traité de métrique latine. Ed. Kliencsieck, Paris 1976.


7. Historical context

  • Pierre Grimal, El segle d’August,  Edicions de 1984, Barcelona, 1999.


8. Dictionaries

  • Seva, Antoni (dir.), Diccionari llatí-català. Ed. Enciclopèdia Catalana.
  • Gaffiot, Felix, Dictionnaire illustré latin-français. Ed. Hachette.
  • Glare, P. G. W., Oxford Latin Dictionary. Clarendon Press.
  • Blánquez, A., Diccionario latino-español. Gredos

9. Specialized dictionaries.

  • Ernout, Alfred; Meillet, Antoine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine, Paris 1967.
  • Quicherat, Louis, Thesaurus Poeticus Linguae Latinae, Hildesheim 19672.


10. Diccionaris i vocabularis en línia.

  • Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary (Perseus) < http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a1999.04.0059 >.
  • Félix Gaffiot, F., Dictionnaire latin-français < http://gerardgreco.free.fr/spip.php?article43&lang=fr > i <http://www.tabularium.be/gaffiot >.
  • Logeion < https://logeion.uchicago.edu/lexidium >.


11. Aeneid's Reception and Tradition

  • Comparetti, Domenico, Virgilio nel Medioevo. Ed. La Nuova Italia Editrice, Firenze, 1981 (=19432).
  • García Jurado, Francisco, Borges, autor de La Eneida. Ed. Biblioteca ELR Ediciones, Madrid 2006.
  • Hardy, Philip, The Epic Successors of Virgil. Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993.
  • Lectures mediévales de Virgile. Ed. École Française de Rome, Roma, 1985.
  • Ziolowski, Theodore, Virgil and the Moderns. Ed. Princeton University Press, Princeton (N. J.), 1993.
  • Ziolowski, Jan M.; Putnam, Michael C.J. (eds.), The Virgilian Tradition. Ed. Yale University Press. New Haven & London, 2008.


12. Aeneid's Translations.

In Catalan:

  • Transl. by Joan Bellés . Ed. Empúries. Barcelona 2002.
  • Poetical trans. by Miquel Dolç. Ed. Alpha. Barcelona 1958.
  • Transl. by Miquel Dolç, 4 vols. Ed. Fundació Bernat Metge. Barcelona, 1972-78.
  • Trans. by Llorenç Riber, Ed. Catalana. Barcelona,1917-18.


In Spanish:

  • Traducción, estudio preliminar, bibliografía y notas de Dulce Estefanía Álvarez, Ed. PPU. Barcelona, 1988.
  • Traducción de José Carlos Fernández Corte, Cátedra, Madrid, 2008.
  • Traducción de Javier de Echave-Sustaeta, Gredos, Madrid, 2019.


Students do not need specific software