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History of Music in the 20th and 21st Centuries

Code: 100643 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
2500240 Musicology OB 3 2
The proposed teaching and assessment methodology that appear in the guide may be subject to changes as a result of the restrictions to face-to-face class attendance imposed by the health authorities.


Germán Gan Quesada

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
spanish (spa)
Some groups entirely in English:
Some groups entirely in Catalan:
Some groups entirely in Spanish:


Germán Gan Quesada


There are no compulsory requirements for the inscription in this subject.

Objectives and Contextualisation

On successfully completing this subject, students will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of the main artistic and intellectual trends, and of the periodization of 20th- and 21st-centuries Music History, as well as of the musical languages and technological tools used in them.
  2. Explain the development of the systems of music production, uses and reception of music repertoires within their sociopolitical and cultural contexts.
  3. Analyse the impact of musical changes on the social groups and communities, emphasising their current results.
  4. Deploy a critical approach regarding artistic and musical processes in their historical environment.
  5. Make a proper use of the correct terminology concerning different methodologies applied to the study of musical trends developed throughout the 20th century and in present times.
  6. Highlight the role of Women composers and musicians in 20th-century and Contemporary academic music composition.


  • Critically analyse musical works from any of the points of view of the discipline of musicology.
  • Developing critical thinking and reasoning and communicating them effectively both in your own and other languages.
  • Identify and compare the different channels of reception and consumption of music in society and in culture in each period.
  • Know and understand the historical evolution of music, its technical, stylistic, aesthetic and interpretative characteristics from a diachronic perspective.
  • Relate concepts and information from different humanistic, scientific and social disciplines, especially the interactions which are established between music and philosophy, history, art, literature and anthropology.
  • Relate knowledge acquired to musical praxis, working with musicians through the analysis and contextualisation of different repertoires, both related to historical music and to the different manifestations of contemporary music.
  • Students must be capable of applying their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and they should have building arguments and problem resolution skills within their area of study.
  • Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  • Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Analysing ideas about an artistic phenomenon in a given cultural context.
  2. Analysing the creators of an artistic phenomenon in a specific cultural context.
  3. Analysing the recipients of an artistic phenomenon in a specific cultural context.
  4. Apply the conceptualisation of philosophy, history, literature and anthropology to musical research.
  5. Consider the subject as a whole and identify the context in which the processes studied are inscribed and their interrelationship with the elements and factors that are involved in their sociohistorical development.
  6. Contextualise new tendencies in musical creation in general historical evolution and observe its incorporation in the sociopolitical panorama in which they are framed.
  7. Contextualise musical works in their hsitorical and cultural setting from a critical perspective.
  8. Correctly identify the essential repertoire and the main composers of each historical period.
  9. Critically identify the different orientations of musical praxis that musicians apply to the music of each hsitorical period.
  10. Define the processes of periodisation and stylistic classification and usual typology in the historical conceptualisation of the musical fact.
  11. Identify and critically place different musical typologies in their historical periods.
  12. Identify phenomena of the circulation of ideas in music proficiency.
  13. Identify the complexity of music reception processes.
  14. Identify the stylistic properties of each historical period.
  15. Identifying the context of the historical processes.
  16. Identifying the main and secondary ideas and expressing them with linguistic correctness.
  17. Identifying the specific methods of history and their relationship with the analysis of particular facts.
  18. Integrate knowledge acquired in the production of clear and concise appropriate to the academic and specialist communication.
  19. Interpret the most important theoretical texts of each period.
  20. Interrelate technological and scientific changes in each period with the creation and reception of music.
  21. Link the periods of the history of music to periods of the history of art, in their similarities and differences.
  22. Present knowledge about the history, art or other cultural movements.
  23. Produce correct, precise and clear argumental and terminological writing of knowledge acquired, both in the area of musical specialisation and dissemination.
  24. Recognise in musical praxis element of different cultures and different historical periods.
  25. Solve problems of a methodological nature in the area of musicology.
  26. Use specific vocabulary of history correctly.
  27. Use the vocabulary of musicology related to each period of history.


This subject is structured into the following units and seminars:

Unit 1. Modernism and Avant-garde trends: the beginning of the 20th century.

Unit 2. Music during the inter-war period: le retour à l’ordre.

Seminar I. Revolution on Stage: Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (1909-1929).

Unit 3. Music, Politics and Authoritarian regimes.

Unit 4. Music and cultural renovation; the ‘Silver Age’ in Spain and Catalonia.

Unit 5. Music(s) for a post-war world: Darmstadt and the second Avant-garde.

Seminar II. Post-war avant-gardes in Spain and Catalonia (1945-1968): a hard way.

Unit 6. Postmodern pluralism (I): concept and practices of musical intertextuality.

Unit 7. Postmodern pluralism (II): musical actions, spatial and acousmatic experiences.

Unit 8. Rethinking form as process: minimalist trends.

Unit 9. The end of the Avant-garde paths: towards a new musical expression.

Unit 10. Sound gestures: new timbre resources and performance embodiment.

Unit 11. Crossbreeding and globalisation of music composition. 

Unit 12. Music in the Digital Age: end of history or endless story?


Throughout the course, theoretical-practical lectures, in which a conceptualization and synthetic approach of every unit will be provided, alternate with others of a more open nature (commentaries of scores, auditions and texts, as well as seminars). These practical sessions will be developed in small groups, according to the size of the whole group.

In order to ensure the successful development of the students in the subject, two tutorials (one individual, another for the whole group) will be scheduled, to solve general enquiries on the syllabus and supervise the autonomous task of every student.

At the beginning of the subject’s activities, an Aula Moodle will be opened as the only repository of the teaching materials and links needed for the preparation of the subject, according to its general schedule and to the legal © regulations. In this sense, this Aula Moodle is the reference space for the activities of the subject and for the communications related to it; any question concerning the subject is to be submitted, therefore, through Aula Moodle’s mail and the lecturer will not answer enquiries sent to his main E-mail address.

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Analysis of selected scores 10 0.4 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 12, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 16, 14, 18, 6, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21
Theoretical and practical sessions 26 1.04 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 12, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 16, 14, 18, 6, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21
Type: Supervised      
Group meetings - Text commentary and analytical seminars 11 0.44 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 12, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 16, 14, 18, 6, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21
Individual tutorials 2 0.08
Reading and commentary of bibliographical sources 28 1.12 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 12, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 16, 14, 18, 6, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21
Type: Autonomous      
Search of bibliographical sources, preparations of text commentaries and analysis, and individual study 67 2.68 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 12, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 14, 18, 6, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21


Assessable activities are as follows:

-  Two written exams, of theoretical-practical nature [March 30, 2022; June 13, 2022].

-  Preparation of a review of a musicological essay or book chapter, chosen from a selection which will be proposed to the students, through the subject’s Aula Moodle, by mid March 2022. At this moment, additional information on the task’s deadline and its main features (length, layout…) will be provided. 

All assessment activities are obligatory and independent. Following the academic schedule established by the Faculty, students may retake assessment activities they have failed or compensate for any they have missed, provided that those they have actually performed account for a minimum of 70% of the subject’s final mark, and after discussing this possibility with the lecturer. The highest mark for this retaken activity is 6.

When publishing final marks prior to recording them on students’ transcripts, the lecturer will provide written notification of a date and time for reviewing assessment activities. Students must arrange reviews in agreement with the lecturer.

In the event of the assessment activities a student has performed accounting for just 30% or less of the subject’s final mark, their work will be classified as “not assessable” on their transcript.


In the event of a student committing any irregularity that may lead to a significant variation in the grade awarded to an assessment activity, the student will be given a zero for this activity, regardless of any disciplinary process that may take place. In the event of several irregularities in assessment activities of the same subject, the student will be given a zero as the final grade for this subject.

In the event that tests or exams cannot be taken onsite, they will be adapted toan online format made available through the UAB’s virtual tools (original weighting will be maintained). Homework, activities and class participation will be carried out through forums, wikis and/or discussion on Teams, etc. Lecturers will ensure that students are able to access these virtual tools, or will offer them feasible alternatives.

Complementary music examples (Units 1-6 and 8)

Unit 1

GUSTAV MAHLER, Symphony n. 5 (1902)

MAURICE RAVEL, String Quartet (1902/03)

CLAUDE DEBUSSY, La Mer (1903/1909)

SERGEI RACHMANINOV, The Bells op. 35 (1913)

ARNOLD SCHÖNBERG, Pierrot lunaire op. 21 (1912)

LEOŠ JANAČEK, Sinfonietta (1926)

ANTON WEBERN, Five pieces for String Quartet op. 5 (1909)

Unit 2

IGOR STRAVINSKY, Pulcinella (1920)

PAUL HINDEMITH, Kammermusik n. 1op. 24/1 (1921)

ALFREDO CASELLA, Scarlattiana op. 44 (1926)

AARON COPLAND, El Salón México (1936)

ALBAN BERG, Violin Concerto (1935)

ALBERTO GINASTERA, Estancia op. 7 (1941), ‘Malambo’

Unit 3

SERGEI PROKOFIEV, Overture on Hebrew Themes (1919)

OLIVIER MESSIAEN, Quatuor pour la fin du temps (1940)

BENJAMIN BRITTEN, Les Illuminations (1940)

ANDRÉ JOLIVET, Les Trois Complaintes du Soldat (1940)

DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH, Symphony n. 8 (1941)

Unit 4

EDUARD TOLDRÀ, Vistes al mar (1921)

MANUEL DE FALLA, El Retablo de Maese Pedro (1923)

ÓSCAR ESPLÁ, La nochebuena del diablo (1923)

ERNESTO HALFFTER, Sonatina (1928)

GUSTAVO PITTALUGA, La romería de los cornudos (1930)

BALTASAR SAMPER, Ritual de pagesia (1935)

ROBERT GERHARD, Albada, interludi i dansa (1936)

Unit 5

PIERRE HENRY, Symphonie pour un homme seul (1950)

KARLHEINZ STOCKHAUSEN, Gesang der Jünglinge (1955/56)

IANNIS XENAKIS, Achorripsis (1956)


HENRI POUSSEUR, Scambi (1958)

PIERRE BOULEZ, Pli selon pli (1959), ‘Improvisation I sur Mallarmé’

ROBERT GERHARD, Symphony n. 3 ‘Collages’ (1960)

JOSEP MARIA MESTRES QUADRENY, Quartet de Catroc (1962)

GYÖRGY LIGETI, Nouvelles aventures (1962/65)

LUCIANO BERIO, Sequenza III (1966)

WITOLD LUTOSŁAWSKI, Trois poèmes d’Henri Michaux (1963), ’Le Grand Combat’

Unit 6


MAURICIO KAGEL, Ludwig van (1970)

ALFRED SCHNITTKE, String Quartet n. 3 (1983)

LUCIANO BERIO, Rendering (1989/90)

BENET CASABLANCAS, Full d’àlbum (1993)

XAVIER BENGUEREL, Llibre Vermell (1988)

SOFÍA GUBAIDULINA, Reflections on B-A-C-H (2002)

JOAN MAGRANÉ, Madrigal. Musik mit Gesualdo (2012)

Unit 7 [not included]

Unit 8

TERRY RILEY, In C (1964)

CARMELO A. BERNAOLA, Sinfonía en Do (1974)

TOMÁS MARCO, Pulsar (1986)

PHILIP GLASS, String Quartet n. 3 ‘Mishima’ (1985)

ARVO PÄRT, Berliner Messe (1990)

JOHN ADAMS, Dr. Atomic (2005)

Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Final examen 30% 2 0.08 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 12, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 16, 14, 18, 6, 19, 24, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21
Intermediate exam 30% 2 0.08 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 16, 14, 18, 6, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21
Review of a musicological chapter or article 40% 2 0.08 2, 3, 1, 4, 23, 5, 7, 10, 13, 12, 22, 8, 9, 15, 17, 11, 16, 14, 18, 6, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 21


Main Bibliography

Antonkoletz, Elliott. A History of Twentieth-Century Music in a Theoretical-Analytical Context. London and New York: Routledge, 2014.

Auner, Joseph. La música en los siglos XX y XXI. Madrid: Akal, 2017.

Berger, Karol - Anthony Newcomb (eds.). Music and the Aesthetics of Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.

Carredano, Consuelo - Victoria Eli (eds.). Historia de la música en España e Hispanoamérica, vol. 8: La música en Hispanoamérica en el siglo XX. Madrid: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2015.

Cook, Nicholas - Anthony Pople (eds.). The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Music. Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Cooke, Mervyn (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century Opera. Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Cox, Christoph - Daniel Warner (eds.). Audio Culture. Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum, 2006.

Dibelius, Ulrich. La música contemporánea a partir de 1945. Madrid: Akal, 2004.

Floros, Constantin. New Ears for New Music. Bern et al.; Peter Lang Verlag, 2013.

González Lapuente, Alberto (ed.). Historia de la música en España e Hispanoamérica, vol. 7: La música en España en el siglo XX. Madrid: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2012.

Griffiths, Paul. Modern Music and after. Directions since 1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Hamer, Laura (ed). The Cambridge Companion to Women in Music since 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Kostelanetz, Richard - Joseph Darby (eds.). Classic Essays on Twentieth-Century Music. A Continuing Symposium. New York: Schirmer, 1996.

Lester, Joel. Enfoques analíticos de la música del siglo XX. Madrid: Akal, 2005.

Marco, Tomás. Escuchar la música de los siglos XX y XXI. Madrid: Fundación BBVA, 2017.

Morgan, Robert P. La música del siglo XX. Una historia del estilo musical en la Europa y la América modernas. Madrid: Akal, 1994.

Solomos. Makis. From Music to Sound. The Emergence of Sound in 20th- and 21st-Century Music. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

Whittall, Arnold. Musical Composition in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Whitall, Arnold. Exploring Twentieth-Century Music. Tradition and Innovation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Additional Bibliography

Adell, Joan-Elies - Jaume Radigales (eds.). (Des)acords. Música i músiques als Països Catalans (1975-2009). Vilanova i la Geltrú: El Cep i la Nasa, 2009.

Beal, Amy C. New Music, New Allies. American Experimental Music from the Zero Hour to Reunification. Berkeley, CA: University Of California Press, 2006.

Blánquez, Javier. Una invasión silenciosa. Cómo los autodidactas del pop han conquistado el espacio de la música clásica. Barcelona: Capitán Swing, 2014. 

Bofill Levi, Anna. Los sonidos del silencio. Aproximación a la historia de la creación musical de las mujeres. Barcelona: Aresta, 2015.

Born, Georgina. Rationalizing Culture: IRCAM, Boulez, and the Institutionalization of the Musical Avant-Garde. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.

Bowie, Andrew. Music, Philosophy and Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Bosseur, Dominique - Jean-Yves Bosseur. Révolutions musicales. La musique contemporaine depuis 1945. Évreux: Minerve, 1999 (5.ª ed.).

Bosseur, Jean-Yves - Pierre Michel. Musiques contemporaines. Perspectives analytiques (1950-1985). Évreux: Minerve, 2007.

Carroll, Mark. Music and Ideology in Cold War Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Charles Soler, Agustín. Análisis de la música española del siglo XX. En torno a la generación del 51. Valencia: Rivera Editores, 2002.

Chew, Geoffrey (ed.). New Music in the New Europe 1918-1938. Ideology, Theory and Practice. Prague: Koniasch Latin Press, 2007.

Cobussen, Marcel - Vincent Meelberg - Barry Truax. The Routledge Companion to Sounding Art. London / New York: Routledge, 2017.

Collins, Nick - Julio d’Escrivan (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017 (2.ª ed.).

Creació musical contemporània a Catalunya. Barcelona: Associació Catalana de Compositors, 2013.

Darbon, Nicolas. Musica Multiplex. Dialogique du simple et du complexe en musique contemporaine. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2007.

Dávila, Ana María - Javier Pérez Senz. Compositors d'avui. Guia de la música contemporània a Catalunya. Barcelona: Caixa Catalunya - Obra Social, 2008.

Doce notas preliminares, 8 (2001). "Postmodernidad, veinte años después".

Dufourt, Hugues. La musique spectrale. Une révolution épistémologique. Paris: Delatour, 2014.

Dufourt, Hugues - Joël-Marie Fouquet. La musique depuis 1945. Matériau, esthétique et perception. Sprimont: Mardaga, 1996.

Fernández Guerra, Jorge. Cuestiones de ópera contemporánea. Metáforas de supervivencia. Madrid: Ed. Gloria Collado, 2009.

Gann, Kyle. American Music in the Twentieth Century. New York: Schirmer, 1997. 

Fulcher, Jane F. The Composer as Intellectual. Music and Ideology in France 1914-1940. Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Gendron, B. Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club. Popular Music and the Avant-Garde. Chicago / London: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Gloag, Kenneth. Postmodernism in Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Grant, M. J. Serial Music, Serial Aesthetics. Compositional Theory in Post-War Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Guldbrandsen, Erlang. Transformations of Musical Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Heile, Björn (ed.). The Modernist Legacy. Essays on New Music. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009.

Herrera, Eduardo. Elite Art Worlds. Philanthropy, Latin Americanism and Avant-garde Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.

Hodgkinson, Tim. Music and the Myth of Wholeness. Toward a new aesthetic paradigm. Cambridge, MA / London: The MIT Press, 2016.

Holmes, Thom. Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition. London and New York: Routledge, 2016.

Iges, José et al. MASE. Historia y presencia del arte sonoro en España. Madrid: Bandaàparte Editores, 2015.

Iverson, Jennifer. Electronic Inspirations. Technologies of the Cold War Musical Avant-Garde. Oxford et al.: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Johnson, Steven. The New York School of Music and theVisual Arts. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Kahn, Douglas - Gregory Whitehead. Wireless imagination. Sound, radio and the avant-garde. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1992.

Koay, Kheng K. The Kaleidoscope of Women’s Sounds in Music of the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015.

Kramer, Lawrence. Opera and modern culture. Berkeley: California University Press, 2004.

Labelle, Brandon. Background Noise. Perspectives on Sound Art. London et al.: Bloomsbury Publishing, 22015.

Lochhead, Judy - Joseph Auner. Postmodern music/postmodern thought. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Manning, Peter. Electronic and Computer Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

MASE. Historia y proyección del arte sonoro en España. Córdoba: Bandaàparte Editores, 2015.

McHard, James L. The Future of Modern Music. A Philosophical Exploration of Modernist Music in the 20th Century and Beyond. Lavinia, MI: Iconic Press, 2008.

McKay, Tristan. A Semiotic Approach to Open Notation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. Musiques du XXIème siècle. Paris: Actes Sud, 2003. 

Nexus, 37 (primavera 2007). "La música contemporània: nous reptes a Catalunya i a Europa".

Nicholls, David. American Experimental Music. Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Nyman, Michael. Música experimental: de John Cage en endavant. Girona: Documenta Universitaria, 2006.

Potter, Keith, Kyle Gann - Pwyll ap Siôn (eds.). The Ashgate Research Companion to Minimalist and Postminimalist Music. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2013.

Prendergast, Mark. The Ambient Century. From Mahler to Moby – The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. London: Bloombury, 2003.

Quodlibet, 50 (maig-agost de 2011) [dossier "Estética musical contemporánea"].

Quodlibet, 68 (maig-agost de 2018) [dossier "Arte sonoro (I)"]

Quodlibet, 69 (setembre-desembre de 2018) [dossier "Entartete Musik"].

Ramaut-Chevassus, Béatrice. Musique et postmodernité. París: Presses Universitaires de France, 1998.

Ramos, Francisco. La música del siglo XX. Una guía completa. Madrid: Turner, 2013.

Rutherford-Johnson, Tim. Music after the Fall. Modern Composition and Culture since 1989. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2017.

Sánchez de Andrés, Leticia - Adela Presas (eds.). Música, ciencia y pensamiento en España e Iberoamérica durante el siglo XX. Madrid: Servicio de Publicaciones de la UAM, 2013.

Scherzo, 323 (novembre de 2016) [dossier "Minimalismo"].

Schmelz, Peter J. Such Freedom, if only musical. Unofficial Soviet Music during the Thaw. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Schwartz, Elliott - Daniel Godfrey. Music since 1945. Issues, Materials, and Literature. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 1993.

Straus, Joseph. Remaking the Past. Musical Modernism and the Influence of the Tonal Tradition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Supper, Martin. Música electrónica y música con ordenador. Historia, estética, métodos, sistemas. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 2004.

Taylor, Timothy D. Strange Sounds. Music, Technology, and Culture. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Thorau, Christian - Hansjakob Ziemer (eds.) The Oxford Handbook ofMusic Listening in the 19th and 20th Centuries. London: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Valle, Andrea. Contemporary Music Notation. Semiotic and Aesthetic Aspects. Berlin: Logos Verlag, 2019.

Veitl, Anne. Politiques de la musique contemporaine. Le compositeur, la ‘Recherche musicale’ et l’État en France de 1958 à 1991. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1997.

Watkins, Glenn. Proff through the Night. Music and the Great War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Whitall, Arnold. Serialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Williams, Alastair. Music in Germany since 1968. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Wittje, Roland. The Age of Electroacoustics. Transforming Science and Sound. Cambridge, MA / London: The MIT Press, 2016.

Wörner, Felix – Scheideler, Ullrich – Rupprecht, Philip Ernst. Tonality since 1950. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2017.


Databases and general webpages:

-  The Living Composers Project [www.composers21.com]

-  Base de Documentation sur la musique contemporain (B.R.A.H.M.S.), IRCAM [brahms.ircam.fr]

-  Groupe de Recherches Musicales [inagrm.com./fr]

-  Colección Digital de Música Española (CLAMOR), Fundación Juan March [digital.march.es/clamor/]

-  Associació Catalana de Compositors (ACC) [www.accompositors.com]


Perspectives of New Music [www.perspectivesofnewmusic.org], 1962-
Contemporary Music Review [www.tandfonline.com/loi/gcmr20#.UdsA0KxmPKc], 1984-
Leonardo Music Journal [https://www.mitpressjournals.org/lmj], 1991-
Cahiers de l’IRCAM [http://web4.ircam.fr/270.html], 1992-
Organised Sound [https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/organised-sound], 1996-
Espacio sonoro [espaciosonoro.tallersonoro.com], 2004-
Sonograma Magazine [http://sonograma.org/], 2008-


Does not apply.