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Archaeology of Women

Code: 100379 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
2500241 Archaeology OT 3 0
2500241 Archaeology OT 4 0
2500501 History OT 4 0
The proposed teaching and assessment methodology that appear in the guide may be subject to changes as a result of the restrictions to face-to-face class attendance imposed by the health authorities.


Cristina Rihuete Herrada

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
spanish (spa)
Some groups entirely in English:
Some groups entirely in Catalan:
Some groups entirely in Spanish:


No specific requirements are needed to apply for this course

Objectives and Contextualisation

The main goals of the course are:

(1) to analyze androcentric biases in arrchaeological theory & practice

(2) get acquainted with the main alternatives posed by feminist social theory & activism

(3) showing the interdisciplinary nature of gender studies in archaeology through a wide array of case studies

(4) focusing on new methodologies and analytical procedures which are nowadays available for a gender-sensitive archaeology



  • Providing a context for the concepts of archaeological theory and its origin and distinguishing the main epistemological and methodological debates in social sciences.
  • Students must be capable of applying their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and they should have building arguments and problem resolution skills within their area of study.
  • Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  • Students must develop the necessary learning skills to undertake further training with a high degree of autonomy.
  • Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.
  • Contextualizing the historical processes and analysing them from a critical perspective.
  • Developing critical thinking and reasoning and communicating them effectively both in your own and other languages.
  • Students must be capable of applying their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and they should have building arguments and problem resolution skills within their area of study.
  • Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  • Students must develop the necessary learning skills in order to undertake further training with a high degree of autonomy.
  • Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Applying both knowledge and analytical skills to the resolution of problems related to their area of study.
  2. Applying both knowledge and capacity for analysis to the resolution of problems related to the field of study.
  3. Critically assessing the sources and theoretical models.
  4. Effectively expressing themselves and applying the argumentative and textual processes of formal and scientific texts.
  5. Identifying the context of the historical processes.
  6. Identifying the specific methods of archaeology and their relationship with the historical analysis.
  7. Identifying the specific methods of history and their relationship with the analysis of particular facts.
  8. Knowing the main archaeological debates on Prehistory.
  9. Mastering the relevant languages to the necessary degree in the professional practice.
  10. Recognising the importance of controlling the quality of the work results and their presentation.
  11. Submitting works in accordance with both individual and small group demands and personal styles.
  12. Transmitting the results of archaeological research and clearly communicating conclusions in oral and written form to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  13. Using the specific technical and interpretational vocabulary of the discipline.


The contents of the course are organised in the three major sections:

The first is an introductory one and deals with the conception of women in Western society as well as the path and plurality of feminism and its impact in History, Humanities and Social Sciences.

The second section is devoted to key concepts in feminist critique as sexism, androcentrism, gender, patriarchy, family, sexuality, ethics of care and work.

The third section delves into the wide array of topics that have been studied with a gender perspective starting with the first alternatives to androcentric explanations on the origins of humanity and sexual division of labour. This section will include many case studies from all over the world and different time periods that have to do with funerary practices, settlement & territory analysis, social and economic interpretation of material remains, symbolism and biomolecular archaeology (paloediet, kinship and ancestry).

The sessions will cover the following topics:

1. Feminist activism and social theory in historical perspective and its impact in research.

2. Androcentrism.

3. Sex and Gender.

4. Women archaeology, gender archaeology and feminist archaeology.

5. Androcentrism in archaeology: 1.) biases in prehistoric archaeology: different perspectives on pottery production, textiles and metallurgy; 2.) biases and alternatives to explanatory models about the origins and evolution of humankind.

6. Patriarchal, mothering and ginecentric societies.

7. Body, descent and ancestry: other genders, palaeogenetics and mobility histories.

8. Work and production: household, domestic unit/space, maintenance activities and social production.

9. Funerary practices achaeology and the research of social asimetries based on sex/gender.


Class-room activities

- Lectures with ICT support

- Debate and work in groups. Collective evaluation of texts and video documentaries. Single/collective presentations and round evaluations.

Monitored activities 

- Scheduled meetings for the discussion of specific doubts and topic contents.

- Guidance and counselling on specific doubts and topics.

Autonomous activities

- Individual study, text-reading, bibliography and documentary search.

- Written essays & oral presentations

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Written tests 40 1.6
Type: Supervised      
Essays and exercices 20 0.8 2, 8, 6
Type: Autonomous      
Essays and exercices 30 1.2 8, 5, 6, 12


Screening tests typology

- Written tests

- Essays

- Oral presentations

- Involvement in discussions

Evaluation blocks

There will be a continuous assessment of the course through three different block, each one of them having a specific weight in the final grade:

1. Class-room activities will be evaluated by written tests & essays

2. Monitored activities will be evaluated through oral presentations and involvement in discussions

3. Autonomous activities will be evaluated through essays

Evaluation timetable

The student will be informed about the specific contents and deadlines of the different evaluation blocks right at the beginning of the course and also via moodle.

Requirements to pass the course

- Meeting all deadlines

- The average score should be at least 5.

- Not meeting one or more deadlines will deserve an "unassessable" final grade.

- Any irregularity committed in a particular evaluation block (copy, plagiarism) will deserve a 0 score in that specific block.


Re-evaluation will be granted to anybody delivering in time all evaluation blocks.

It will be a written test on the full content of the course. Date and place will be determined by the faculty. The maximum score will be 5,0.


Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Active involvement in discussium and workshops 10% 5 0.2 5, 7, 13
Essays and exercices 45% 25 1 2, 3, 8, 9, 5, 6, 11, 10, 12
Written tests 45% 30 1.2 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 13


[most relevant works in bold type]



Arruza, Cinzia; Bhattacharya, Tithi; Fraser, Nancy (2019), Manifiesto de un feminismo para el 99%. Herder, Barcelona.

Azpiazu, Jokin (2017), Masculinidades y feminismo. Virus, Barcelona.

Beauvoir, Simone (1949, 1999), El segundo sexo. Cátedra, Madrid.

Braidotti, Rosi (2004), Feminismo, diferencia sexual y subjetividad nómade. Gedisa, Barcelona.

Bogino, Mercedes y Fernández-Rasines, Paloma (2017), “Relecturas de género: concepto normativo y categoría crítica”, La ventana, 45, pàgs. 158-185. http://www.revistascientificas.udg.mx/index.php/LV/article/view/5375/5809

Butler, Judith (1990), Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.  Routledge, London [traducción al castellano en Paidós, Barcelona, 2001, El género en disputa. Feminismo y la subversión de la identidad]

Butler, Judith (2004), Undoing Gender. Routledge, New York [traducción al castellano en Paidós, Barcelona, 2004, Deshacer el género].

Bocchetti, Alessandra (1996), Lo que Quiere una Mujer. (Historia, Política, Teoría. Escritos, 1981–95). Cátedra, col. Feminismos, Madrid.

Cavarero, Adriana (1987) ‘Per una Teoria della Differenza Sessuale’, en Diotima (1987) Il Pensiero della Differenza Sessuale, La Tartaruga, Milán, pàgs. 41–79.

Cigarini, L. (1996), La política del deseo. Icaria-Antrazyt, Barcelona.

Córdoba, David; Sáez, Javier; Vidarte, Paco (2005), Teoría Queer. Políticas bolleras, maricas, trans, mestizas. Egales, Barcelona.

Delphy, Christine. (1985), Por un feminismo materialista. El enemigo prinicipal y otros textos. La Sal, Barcelona.

Despentes, Virginie (2018), Teoría King Kong. Literatura Random House, Barcelona.

Diotima (1987) Il Pensiero Della Differenza Sessuale. La Tartaruga, Milán.

Eichler, Magaret (1987), Nonsexist Research Methods. A Practical Guide, Allen and Unwin, Boston.

Fausto-Sterling, Anne (2000), Sexing the Body. Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. Basic Books, New York [traducción al castellano en Melusina, Sta. Cruz de Tenerife, 2006, Cuerpos sexuados. La política de género y la construcción de la sexualidad].

Federici, Silvia (2018), Revolución en punto cero. Trabajo doméstico, reproducción y luchas feministas. Col. Mapas, Traficantes de Sueños, Madrid. https://www.traficantes.net/libros/revoluci%C3%B3n-en-punto-cero

Firestone, Sulamith (1973), The Dialectic of sex. Johnathan-Cape, London [traducción al castellano en Kairós, Barcelona, 1976, La dialéctica del sexo]

Gamba, Susana (2008), “Feminismo: historia y corrientes”, en Diccionario de estudios de Género y Feminismos. Biblos <http://www.mujeresenred.net/spip.php?article1397>

El Hachmi, Najat (2019), Siempre han hablado por nosotras. Feminismo e identidad. Un manifiesto valiente y necesario. Col. Destino preferentes, Ed. Planeta, Barcelona.

Haraway, Donna (1995), Ciencia, cyborgs y mujeres. Cátedra, Col. Feminismos. Madrid. [original de 1991 Simians, Cyborgs and Women en http://cstpr.colorado.edu/students/envs_5110/siamanscyborgs.pdf]

Haslanger, Sally; Tuana, Nancy (2015), “Topics in Feminism”, en Zalta, Edward (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2015/entries/feminism-topics/>.

Herd, Gilbert (ed.) (1994),Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. Zone Books, New York.

Irigaray, Luce (1992),  J’aime à toi. Esquisse d’une félicité dans l’Histoire. Bernard Grasset, París [traducción al castellano en Icaria, Barcelona, 1994, Amo a tí: bosquejo de una felicidad en la historia].

Jónasdóttir, Anna G. (2011), “¿Qué clase de poder es “el poder del amor”?”, Sociológica, 26(74): 247-273.

Librería de Mujeres de Milán (1996), El final del Patriarcado (Ha ocurrido y no por casualidad).  Sottosopra Rosso  https://www.libreriadelledonne.it/pubblicazioni/el-final-del-patriarcado-ha-ocurrido-y-no-por-casualidad-sottosopra-rosso-enero-1996/

MacKinnon, Catherine (1982), “Feminism, marxism. Method and the State: an agenda for theory”, Signs, 7: 515-541.

Moreno, Amparo (1986), El arquetipo viril protagonista de la historia. Ejercicios de lectura no androcéntrica. La Sal, Barcelona. http://www.amparomorenosarda.es/es/arquetipo-viril

Muraro, Luisa (2000), “Autoridad y autoría”, en Segura, C. y Cerrada, A.L. (eds.), Las mujeres y el poder. Representaciones y prácticas de vida. Asociación Cultural Al-Mudayna, Madrid,pàgs. 9-20.

Pateman, Carole (1988), The Sexual Contract. Polity Press, Cambridge [traducción al castellano en Antrhopos, Barcelona, 1975, El contrato sexual ]

Rich, Adrienne (1980), “Compulsory heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence”, Signs, 5-4: 631-660.

Varela, Nuria (2013), Feminismo para principiantes. Novoprint, Barcelona.

Wollstonecraft, Mary (1792, 2005), Vindicación de los derechos de la mujer. Istmo, Col. Fundamentos, Madrid.

Ziga, Itziar (2009), Devenir perra. Melusina, Santa Cruz de Tenerife.



AAVV, (2006), Les dones en la Prehistòria. Museu de Prehistòria de València, Diputació de València.

Adovasio, James; Soffer, Olga; Page, Jake (2007),  The Invisible Sex. Uncovering the true roles of Women in Prehistory. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California [traducción al castellano en Lumen, Barcelona, 2008, El sexo invisible: el verdadero rol de las mujeres en la prehistoria].

Arnold, Bettina y Wicker, Nancy L. (eds.) (2001),  Gender and the Archaeology of Death. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek.

Barber, Elizabeth Wayland (1994), Women’s work. The first 20.000 years. Women, cloth, and society in Early Times. W.W. Norton & Company, Nova York.

Berrocal, Mª Carmen (2009), “Feminismo, teoría y práctica de una arqueología científica”, Trabajos de Prehistoria, 66 (2), pàgs. 25-43.

Bertelsen, Reidar; Lillehammer, Arnvid; Naess, Jenny-Rita (eds.) (1987 [1979]), Were They All Men?. An Examination of Sex Roles in Prehistoric Society, AmS-Varia, Museo Arqueológico de Satavanger, Satavanger.

Bolger, Diane (ed.) (2013), A Companion to Gender Prehistory. Col. Blackwell Companions to Anthropology, Wiley-Blackwell.

Brück, Joanna (2021), “Ancient DNA, kinship and relational identities in Bronze Age Britain”, Antiquity, 95 (379): 228-237; https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2020.216

Cintas Peña, Marta (2020), La desigualdad de genero en la prehistòria ibérica. Una aproximación multi-variable. BAR International Series 2990, Oxford [tesis doctoral original de 2018 disponible en


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Conkey, Margaret W. i Spector, Janet F. (1984), “Archaeology and the Study of gender”, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, 7, pàgs. 1-38.

Coto, Maria; Delgado, Lara; López, Lourdes, Martín, Jesús; Pastor, Ana; Ruiz, Apen; Yubero, María (2020), Informe sobre el acoso sexual en arqueología (España). Barcelona, Granada y Madrid. DOI: 10.5281 /zenodo.3662763. https://zenodo.org/record/3662763#.YMCuZ27tZ0s

Crown, Patricia L. (ed.) (2000), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest. Labor, power and prestrige. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.

Davis-Kimball, Jeannine (2002), Warrior women. An archaeologist’s search for history’s hidden heroins. Warner Books, New York.

Díaz-Andreu, Margarita (2014), “Historia del estudio del género en arqueología”, Saguntum Extra 15 (en Desmuntant Lara Croft. Dones, Arqueologia i Universitat), pàgs. 25-32.

Díaz-Andreu, Margarita i Sørensen, Mary Louise Stig (1998), Excavating Women. A History of Women in European Archaeology. Routledge, London.

Dowson, Thomas A. (1998), “Homosexualitat, teoria queer i arqueologia”, Cota Zero, 14, pàgs. 81-87.

Ember, Carole i Ember, Melvin (eds.) (2003), Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender. Men and Women in the World’s Cultures. Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers, New York.

Escoriza, Trinidad (2006), “Mujeres, vida social y violencia. Política e ideología en el arte rupestre levantino”, Cypsela, 16, pàgs. 19-36.

Escoriza, Trinidad; González, Andrea; Castro, Pedro (2015), “Representaciones figurativas, mujeres y arqueología”, Menga, 6, pàgs. 17-32.

Esparza, Ángel; Palomo-Díez, Sara; Velasco-Vázquez, Javier; Delibes, Germán; Arrroy-Pardo, Eduardo; Salazar García, Domingo (2017), “Familiar kinship? Palaeogenetic and isotopic evidence from a triple burial of the Cogotas archaeological culture (Bronze Age, Iberian Peninsula)”,  Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 36(3), pàgs. 223-242.

Geller, Pamela (2009), “Bodyscapes, biology, and heteronormativity”, American Anthropologist, 111(4): 504-516 - https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1548-1433.2009.01159.x

Geller, Pamela (2017), The bioarchaeology of socio-sexual lives. Queering common sense about sex, gender and sexuality. Springer, Nova York.

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