2023/2024

Degree | Type | Year | Semester |
---|---|---|---|

2503740 Computational Mathematics and Data Analytics | OB | 2 | 2 |

- Name:
- Maria Isabel Vanrell Martorell
- Email:
- maria.vanrell@uab.cat

You can check it through this link. To consult the language you will need to enter the CODE of the subject. Please note that this information is provisional until 30 November 2023.

- Pau Folch Codera

Given the introductory nature of this subject, we assume the student does not have any previous knowledge about this topic. Is the aim of the subject to give to the students the means to acquire the knowledge contents described in the contents section of this guide.

About other skills we expect from the students:

- Having coursed a technological or scientific background in the secondary school.
- Having passed the programming subjects of the 1st and 2nd year of this degree.
- Knowing basic notions of python programming
- Having skills at a user level of one of the following platforms (Windows, Mac or Linux)

This is a subject devoted to introducing the Student to the artificial intelligence (AI) field. Two main objectives are pursuit:

a) let the students to learn how resolution of AI problems is performed with their own specificities in representation, evaluation and solving methodologies, and

b) let the students to know a wide range of techniques and basic algorithms that allow to solve the proposed problems and improving their programming skills.

More specifically, these two aims are pursuing:

- Giving a basic historical introduction and aims of the AI field
- Facing the student with the problem of selecting a good knowledge representation as the basic step to solve an AI problem
- Familiarize the student in 4 different knowledge representations and their corresponding algorithms.
- Giving to the student the ability to design solutions to contextualized problems
- Giving to the student the ability to present and justify the adequacy of the designed solutions.

- Make effective use of bibliographical resources and electronic resources to obtain information.
- Solve problems related to the analysis of large volumes of data through the design of intelligent systems and computational learning.
- Students must be capable of applying their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and they should have building arguments and problem resolution skills within their area of study.
- Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
- Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.
- Using criteria of quality, critically evaluate the work carried out.
- Work cooperatively in a multidisciplinary context assuming and respecting the role of the different members of the team.

- Define and develop optimal search schemes for distinct problems based on the representation and classification of knowledge.
- Identify and define computational solutions in multiple domains for decision making based on exploring alternatives, uncertain reasoning and task planning.
- Know and understand techniques for representing human knowledge.
- Make effective use of bibliographical resources and electronic resources to obtain information.
- Students must be capable of applying their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and they should have building arguments and problem resolution skills within their area of study.
- Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
- Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.
- Using criteria of quality, critically evaluate the work carried out.
- Work cooperatively in a multidisciplinary context, taking on and respecting the role of the distinct members in the team.

**1. Introduction to AI. **Aim and brief history of the field. Definition of rational agent, methodologies for solving AI problems and knowledge representation.

**2. Problem solving by Searching on alternatives**

2.1. Informed Search. Basic definitions on search and review of non-informed search algorithms. Analysis of search algorithms: Completeness, Optimality and Complexity. Heuristic concept and examples. Informed Search: basic and optimal. A* and its properties. Effective branching factor and heuristic properties.

2.2. Local Search. Basic definitions, pros and cons. Understanding local search as exploring the heuristic function landscape. Local search with known goal: Hill-Climbing algorithm. Problems of local search: local maxima, plateaus and ridges. Local search with unknown goal: Steepest Ascent, Steepest Ascent with local maxima control, Simulated Annealing.

2.3. Adversarial Search. (a) Search based on Minimax. Basic definitions. Minimax algorithm and alpha-beta pruning. Complexity analysis. Minimax variations: Progressive deepening and Singular extensions. Examples of heuristics functions. (b) Search based on random simulations. Adversarial Search with Random Simulations. Basic definitions. Monte-Carlo Tree Search algorithm. Examples.

**3. Solving pattern recognition problems.**

3.1. Statistical approaches. Feature spaces as a representation for case-based reasoning. Basic definitions on feature spaces. Feature selection and dimension reduction. Classification based on supervised learning: decision functions, assumptions about the data distribution, local search to find decision function. Classification based on unsupervised learning: K-means algorithm, searching the best k with Fisher discriminant. Analysis of the algorithms.

3.2 Structural approaches. Graphs and semantic networks. Basic definitions and representation with adjacency matrices. The graph matching problem,basic algorithms, improvements (AC4) and complexity. Inexact graph matching: similarity measures, edition distance. Study case: String-matching.

**4. Solving problems of logic reasoning**

4.1. Logic and inference mechanisms. Knowledge representation: propositional logic and predicate logic. Review of basic algorithms: natural deduction, resolution mechanism, unification, clausal formconversion. Basic definitions and algorithms on rule-based Systems: rule base, working memory, rule chaining mechanisms, conflict resolution strategies.

4.2. Reasoning with Uncertainty. Representation of uncertaingy with fuzzy sets. Modus ponns with fuzzy sets and forward chaining.

Artificial Intelligence is defined by the type of problems is trying to solve, thus in this course, the type of problem is organizing the course content. We will work in three different types of sessions:

**Theoretical session:** These sessions are classical lectures based on the lecturer explanations, motivating the students to participate in order to ensure they are achieving the knowledge transmission.

**Problem-based session: **These sessions are with a more reduced number of students to facilitate interaction. In these sessions we pursuit to reinforce the understanding of the topics presented in theoretical sessions by posing practical cases that require the design of a solution using the methods presented in theory. It is impossible to follow these sessions without following theoretical sessions, since they are strongly linked. In these sessions we do interactive quizzes to evaluate the participation and the the achievements of the students.

**Practical session: **It is the type of session where different activities are performed connected to perform individual and team-based projects. Different kinds of activities are done in these sessions: (a) sessions for team work but tutored by teaching assistants, (b) sessions to individually evaluate through quizzes to the students on site, (c) sessions to present the results, where all the team members must explain and defend the results of the developed project.

**Transversal skills **we work in this subject are the following:

- Acquiring thinking skills, specifically developing systemic thinking.

This skill is acquired from the theoretical contents, since all the contents are based on building intelligent system with interacting modules, as well as from the projects the students work on, since they work on teams that generate a lot of dependencies in their tasks. This skill is evaluated in the theoretical exams, in the problem task delivered and at all thelevels of the evaluation of the project.

- Acquiring personal work skills, specifically autonomous working.

This skill is acquired from the study of the theoretical contents, the individual delivery of the problem assignments and by the student participation in the project. In the three cases the individual work is evaluated, in theoretical contents through the exam, in problems through the evaluation of the deliverables and in the project through the individual quizzes, the participation in the final presentation and the intra-evaluation performed by the team members within each group.

**Annotation**: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.

Title | Hours | ECTS | Learning Outcomes |
---|---|---|---|

Type: Directed | |||

Theoretical lectures | 28 | 1.12 | 3, 1, 2, 7 |

Type: Supervised | |||

Practical sessions | 14 | 0.56 | 8, 6, 5, 9, 4 |

Problem-based sessions | 12 | 0.48 | 3, 1, 2, 5 |

Type: Autonomous | |||

Individual study | 10 | 0.4 | 3, 1, 2, 7, 5, 4 |

Project-based practical work | 22 | 0.88 | 8, 3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 9, 4 |

To evaluate the learning level of the students we establish a formula that combines acquisition of knowledge, abilities in problem solving and the skills to work in a team as well as to justify the obtained results in a project.

**Final grade **is computed as a weighted sum of the marks obtained in the different performed activities:

* Final Score = 0.5 * Theory Score + 0.1 * Problem Score + 0.4 * Practice Score*

This formula will be computed only in the case that Theory Score is greater or equal to **5**, and the Project Score is greater or equal to **6**. No constrain is applied on the Problem Score. If the Final Score is >=5, but the minimun thresholds are not achieved in on the the Scores, then the Score in the transcript will be **4.5**.

**The Theory Score** is calculated as the average of the score of two Partial Exams:

** Theory Score = 0.5 * Partial 1 Score + 0.5 * Partial 2 Score**

this mark is computed only if the Partial Scores are both equal or greater than **3.5**. When the Scores are given, a date and time of an Exam Review Session will be announced.

**Retake Exam.** In case the Theory Score does not achieve the 5 to pass, the student can retake the exam 1, the exam 2 or both. To compute the final Theory Score we consider the maximum between the first mark and the corresponding retake mark.

**The Problem Score** pursuits the student to work on the theoretical content as they are given during the course, specific problems are posed to make the student have to apply the theoretical contents just after they have been explained in the lectures. To evaluate this activity students are asked to do a weekly delivery of solved problems, and the active participation of the students in the weekly Problem Sessions.

** Problem Score = 0.7 * Deliveries Score + 0.15 * Session Attendance + 0.15 * Session-Quiz Scores**

this score is included in the final mark if the % of deliverables is superior to **70% **of the total.

**The Practice Score **has an essential weight in the final mark, it pursuits the student to program and explore the studied techniques within the frame of the global goal of a contextualized project. Additionally, the student has to demonstrate its skills in doing all this work both, individually and in a team, and defending the final results in a presentation. The final Project Score is computed as:

* Practice Score = 0.5 * Project 1 Score + 0.5 * Project 2 Score*

To compute this Score every one of the projects has to get a mark greater or equal to **6**. The mark for each one of the projects is computed from a compilation of marks:

*Project 1 Score = **0.6 * Code Mark + **0.5 * Exam Mark*

*Code Mark:**is evaluated with a series of automatic test on the delivered code. It evaluates correctnes and efficiency of the code.***Exam Mark:**is evaluated with a quiz that is answered having access to the personal code.

Code Mark and Quiz Mark must be greater or equal to **5.**

* Project 2 Score **= 0.4 * Individual Mark + 0.6 * Group Mark*

*Individual Mark**= 0.7 * Exam Mark + 0.1 * Individual Presentation + 0.2 * Group Participation**Group Mark**= 0.6 * Code Mark + 0.3 * Report + 0.1 * Group Presentation*

The Exam Mark, Code Mark and Group Mark has to be equal or greater than **5**.

**Retake Sessions. **In case a Project Score does not arrive to the adequate level to pass, the students will have a retake option. In the case the student needs to retake the Individual Mark of Project 2, this will be made with a Quiz similar to the Project 1 Quiz. In case the student requires to retake any part of the a Project Mark, then the final Project Scorewill be **7 as the maximum.**

**Single Assesment**

This evaluation consists of the following activities:

**Activities**to evaluate the**Theory****:**student has to do**2 Partial Exam****s**that are retaken separately**(50%,**25% each, 2.5 hours**).****Activities**to evaluate the**Problems:**student has to**Deliver 12 Assignements of Solved Problems (10%)****Activities**to evaluate the**Practicum:**student has to code**2 Projects**requiring different evaluation activities:**Code Delivery**of Project 1**(12%)****Exam**of Project 1**(8%)****Code Delivery**Project 2**(10%)****Exam**of Project 2**(6%)****Report Delivery**of Project 2**(2%)****Oral Presentation**of Project 2**(2%**, 20min**)**

To enable the computation of the final score, some threshold has to be fulfilled by some ofthe scores:

- Partial Exams 1 and 2 must be greater or equal than 3.5.
- Average score of Exams 1 and 2 must be greater or equal than 5.
- Project 1 Code must be greater or equal than 6.
- Project 1 and Project 2 Exams must be greater or equal than 5.
- Code, Report and Oral presentation of Project 2 must be greater or equal than 5.

Both the retake and the final qualification revision will follow the same system as theContinous Evaluation.

**Important notes:**

In case the subject is not passed due to one of the evaluation activities does not arrive to the minimum required score, the final score in the transcript will be the minimum between 4.5 and the final mark obtained if the threshold is not considered, with the exception that the numeric score in the transcript will be in between 3.0 and the final mark obtained if the threshold is not considered, for the case the student have performed any irregular act in an evaluation activity, such as those explained below.

Grade will be **“****Non-Graded****”** (“No Avaluable”) in the case the student did not participate in any of the evaluation activities.

Grade will be **“****Honors****”** (“Matrícula d’Honor”) in the case the rank of the grade is less than the maximum number of honors can be given in a course, and the value of the grade is over a threshold that will be stablished by the teacher.

The **evaluation and delivery dates** will be published Campus Virtual **cv.uab.cat** and might be shifted if there is any change in the planning due to any unexpected event. Students will be informed about any change through cv.uab.cat that will be the usual communication mean between students andteachers.

For the case of **students retaking the course**, no recognition with grades of the previous year will be considered.

Notwithstanding other disciplinary measures deemed appropriate, and in accordance with the academic regulations in force, assessment activities will receive a zero whenever a student commits academic irregularities that may alter such assessment. Assessment activities graded in thisway and by this procedure will not be re-assessable. If passing the assessment activityor activities in question is required to pass the subject, the awarding of a zero for disciplinary measures will also entail a direct fail for the subject, with no opportunity to re-assess this in the same academic year. Irregularities contemplated in this procedure include, among others:

- the total or partial copying of a practical exercise, report, or any other evaluation activity;
- allowing others to copy
- unauthorized and/or non-cited use of AI tools (such as, Copilot, ChatGPT or equivalent) to solve exercises or projects or any assessed activity;
- presenting team work that has not been entirely done by the members of the team;
- presenting any materials prepared by a third party as one’s own work, even if these materials are translations or adaptations, including work that is not original or exclusively that of the student;
- having communication devices (such as mobile phones, smart watches, etc.) accessible during theoretical-practical assessment tests (individual exams).

**An overall grade of 5 or higher is required** to pass the subject. A "non-assessable" grade cannot be assigned to students who have participated in any of the individual partial tests or the final exam.

No special treatment will be given to students who have completed the course in previous academic years, except that the seminar grade previously obtained can be assigned to this course gradebook.

The grade in the Transcript of Records (ToR) will be the lowest value between3.0 and the weighted average grade, in the eventof irregularities having been committed for any assessment activity (and therefore re-assessment will not be possible).

Title | Weighting | Hours | ECTS | Learning Outcomes |
---|---|---|---|---|

Individual Exam | 0.5 | 4 | 0.16 | 3, 1, 2, 7, 6, 5 |

Project Defence (Quiz+Report+Code+Intra_group+Presentation) | 0.4 | 60 | 2.4 | 8, 1, 6, 5, 9, 4 |

Solved Exercise Delivery | 0.1 | 0 | 0 | 3, 1, 2, 7, 6, 5 |

- S. Russell i P. Norvig,
**Artificial Intelligences - A modern approach.**Prentice Hall, 2003, http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/ - Tveter, Donald R., (1998), The Pattern Recognition basis of Artificial Intelligence. IEEE Computer Society.
- Stuart Russell. Human Compatible: AI and the Problem of Control Penguin Publishing Group, Octubre 2019
- Melanie Mitchell. Artificial Intelligence: A Guide for Thinking Humans. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Octubre 2019

**Vídeos interessants**:

- Documental CODEBREAKER http://www.turingfilm.com/about/overview
- Documental Netflix AlphaGo (2017) https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/AlphaGo_(pel%C3%ADcula)

**Tools for Programming in Python Language** with special attention to the Numpy library