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Spanish Lexicology and Phraseology

Code: 106387 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
2504211 Spanish Language and Literature OT 3 0
2504211 Spanish Language and Literature OT 4 0


Gloria Clavería Nadal

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
spanish (spa)
Some groups entirely in English:
Some groups entirely in Catalan:
Some groups entirely in Spanish:

Other comments on languages

English: not vehicular language


Marta Prat Sabater


By obtaining the minimum of credits in basic training subjects, students have demonstrated to have acquired the basic competences and they will be able to express themselves orally and in writing. In the case of written expression, it's understood that the student will write paragraphs with full content. Obviously, spelling errors, punctuation and speech structure will be taken into account. 0,25 points will be deducted for each error.

Activities, practical sessions and papers submitted in the course must be original and under no circumstances will the total or partial plagiarism of third-party materials published on any medium be admitted. According to the uses of the bibliographic documentation, the student must state the authorship of each quote and the use of third-party materials. Any submission of non-original material without properly indicating its origin will automatically result in a failure rating (0)

It is also expected that students know the general rules of submission of an academic work. However, students could apply the specific rules that the teacher of the subject may indicate to them, if they deem it necessary.

Objectives and Contextualisation

Objectives and Contextualisation

Among the basic training objectives, it is intended for the student to acquire the methodological tools necessary for the study of vocabulary and phraseology. At the end of the course, the student will be able to

    - Describe and analyze the structure, operation and evolution of the Spanish lexicon and phraseology both from a synchronic and a diachronic point of view.

    - Distinguish the different classes of lexical and phraseological units from Spanish and understand their organization in paradigms.

    - Acquire and apply the methodological tools for the study of lexicon and phraseology.

    - Know and use the basic bibliographic sources of Spanish lexical and phraseological studies.



    Spanish Language and Literature
  • Analyse the main phenomena of linguistic variation in Spanish (historical, diatopic, semantic and pragmatic variation).
  • Analyse the main phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, lexical and semantic properties of the Spanish language, its evolution throughout history and its current structure.
  • Develop arguments applicable to the fields of Hispanic literature, literary theory, Spanish language and linguistics, and evaluate their academic relevance.
  • Introduce changes in the methods and processes of the field of knowledge to provide innovative responses to the needs and demands of society.
  • Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  • Students must have and understand knowledge of an area of study built on the basis of general secondary education, and while it relies on some advanced textbooks it also includes some aspects coming from the forefront of its field of study.
  • Typologically identify the main phenomena of the Spanish language and relate them to similar phenomena in other languages.
  • Use digital tools and specific documentary sources to gather and organise information.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Acquire knowledge of the structure and types of lexicographical works and of the techniques used in lexicography and terminology.
  2. Characterise linguistic phenomena taking into account the different levels of analysis.
  3. Consolidate knowledge of lexicological and/or phraseological variation from different perspectives.
  4. Detect and assimilate lexical and/or phraseological similarities and differences between languages in contact.
  5. Identify the different morphological procedures of lexicogenesis and their current possibilities in the creation of neologisms.
  6. Justify by means of appropriate terminology the analysis of data from a linguistic point of view.
  7. Make linguistic predictions and inferences about the content of a text, especially at the word level.
  8. Propose new ways of measuring success or failure in the implementation of proposals or innovative ideas.
  9. Recognise and describe the origin and evolution of the Spanish lexicon, including its semantic and phraseological aspects and taking into account the different types of variation.
  10. Use dictionaries, both diachronic and synchronic, to obtain, classify, interpret and analyse relevant data related to the study of the lexicon, both simple and derived, phraseology and terminology.
  11. Use digital tools to obtain, classify, interpret and analyse relevant data related to the study of Spanish language and literature.
  12. Use the appropriate terminology in the construction of an academic text and in the transmission of their knowledge.
  13. Weigh up the risks and opportunities of proposals for improvements, both their own and those of others.


Part I. Lexicology

1. Historical lexicology. Basic concepts: neologism and arcaism, word history and etymology. Sources and methodological tools for the historical study of the Spanish lexicon: historical and etymological dictionaries, old dictionaries (monolingual and multilingual) and corpora.

2. Formation and evolution of the Spanish lexicon: inherited core, lexical morphology and loanwords.

3. Semantic evolution. The semantic change. Mechanisms of semantic change: metaphorical and metonymic processes, folk etymology and ellipsis.

Part II. Phraseology

4. The boundaries of phraseology. Relationship with lexicology. Terminological and conceptual issues. The phraseological units (collocations, locutions, routine formulas and proverbs) and their characteristics. Phraseological variability.

5. Phraseology and semantics. Literal meaning and figurative meaning. Cognitive semantics: evolution of meaning and mechanisms of change. 

6. The phraseography of Spanish. Treatment of phraseologisms in general and phraseological dictionaries. Phraseographical books and their characteristics. The citation form. Evolution of phraseological dictionaries: from paper to electronic format.


The learning of this subject by the student is distributed as follows:

  - Directed activities (35%). These activities are divided into master classes and practices and seminars led by the faculty, in which the theoretical explanation will be combined with discussion of all kinds of texts.

  - Supervised activities (10%). These tutorials try to solve doubts regarding the correction and comment of problems in the different levels of lexicological and phraseological analysis.

  - Autonomous activities (50%). These activities include both time spent on personal study and conducting analytical reviews, papers, and comments.

  - Evaluation activities (5%). The evaluation of the subject may be carried out through oral presentations and written tests.

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Master classes, seminars and practices 52.5 2.1
Type: Supervised      
Evaluation 7.5 0.3
Tutoring and personalized attention 15 0.6
Type: Autonomous      
Production of works and exercises 25 1
Readings and study of course contents 50 2


The evaluation will be distributed as follows:

Completion of the first two tests: 90%. The first will correspond to topics 1-3 (45%) and the second will correspond to topics 4-6 (45%)

Practical activities (10%): practical aspects, active class participation, etc. throughout the course.

The student will be considered "Not evaluable" if he/she doesn't perform any of the tests and will lose the right to retake them. To retake the tests will be possible if he/she delivered only 55% of the evaluable evidence (tests and assignments) of the total of the subject.

The grade of the subject will be obtained from the average of the different evaluation grades, as long as none of them are less than 4 points out of 10. The students who have presented all the evaluation activities or the 55% of them may also apply for retaking the tests as long as the minimum grade of their average done is not less than 3.5 points.

The retaking activities will consist, as the case may be, of a global test or a test corresponding to the part of the course not evaluated.

In the event of a student committing any irregularity that may lead to a significant variation in the grade awarded to an assessment activity, the student will be given a zero for this activity, regardless of any disciplinary process that may take place. In the event of several irregularities in assessment activities of the same subject, the student will be given a zero as the final grade for this subject.

Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
1. Lexicology test (subjects 1-3) 45% 0 0 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 11, 5, 6, 13, 8, 9
2. Phraseological test (subjects 4-6) 45% 0 0 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 11, 5, 6, 13, 8, 9
3. Practical activities 10% 0 0 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 11, 5, 6, 13, 8, 9


Alvar Ezquerra, Manuel (1999): «El neologismo: caracterización, formación y aceptabilidad», en José Manuel González, M.ª Luisa Montero y Jesús Terrón (eds.), V Jornadas de metodología y didáctica de la lengua española: el neologismo. Cáceres: Universidad de Extremadura, Servicio de Publicaciones, ICE, pp. 39-66.

Álvarez de Miranda, Pedro (2004), El léxico español, desde el siglo XVIII hasta hoy, in: Rafael Cano (coord.), Historia de la lengua española, Barcelona: Ariel, 1037-1064.

Battaner Arias, Paz; Carmen López Ferrero (2019): Introducción al léxico, componente transversal de la lengua, Madrid: Cátedra.

Casado Velarde, Manuel (2015): La innovación léxica en el español actual, Madrid, Síntesis.

Clavería Nadal, Gloria (2004), «Los caracteres de la lengua en el siglo XIII: el léxico», in: Rafael Cano (coord.), Historia de la lengua española, Barcelona: Ariel, 473-506.

Clavería, G. (2019): «Historia del léxico», en Emilio Ridruejo (ed.), Manuals of Romance Linguistics (MRL): Lingüística española. Amsterdam: De Gruyter, pp. 133-166. .

Corpas Pastor, Gloria (1996): Manual de fraseología española. Madrid: Gredos.

Dworkin, Steven N. (2011): «Lexical Change», en M. Maiden et al. (eds.), The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, vol 1: Structures. Cambridge: U. P, capítulo 12.

Dworkin, Steven N. (2004), «La transición léxica en el español bajomedieval», in: Rafael Cano (ed.), Historia de la lengua española,Barcelona: Ariel, 643-656.

Dworkin, Steven N. (2012), A History of the Spanish Lexicon. A Linguistic Perspective, Oxford: OUP.

García-Page, Mario (2008): Intoducción a la fraseología española. Barcelona: Ánthropos.

García Rodríguez, Joseph (2016): «La evolución de la fraseología española en los diccionarios bilingües», e-AESLA, 2, Instituto Cervantes, pp. 383-392. Disponible en línea: https://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/eaesla/pdf/02/35.pdf

García Rodríguez, Joseph (2020): La fraseología del español y el catalán: semántica cognitiva, simbolismo y contrastividad, Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang (Studien zur romanischen Sprachwissenschaft und interkulturellen Kommunikation). Dispone de edición digital.

García Rodríguez, Joseph (2021): «La fraseografía bilingüe en español-catalán y otras lenguas: del papel al formato electrónico». Círculo de Lingüística Aplicada a la Comunicación85, pp. 141-152. Disponible en línea: https://doi.org/10.5209/clac.69969

García Rodríguez, Joseph y Marta Prat Sabater (2020): «Influjo del catalán en el contexto lexicológico y fraseológico del español: consultas, crónicas y recomendaciones de la Fundéu», en Poch Olivé, Dolors (ed.), Lenguas juntas y revueltas. El español y el catalán en contacto: prensa, traducción y literatura. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, pp. 37-59.

Guerrero-Ramos, Gloria (1997): Neologismos en el español actual. Madrid: Arco/Libros.

Instituto Cervantes y Julio Borrego Nieto (dir.) (2016): Cocodrilos en el diccionario. Hacia dónde camina el español. Barcelona: Editorial Espasa Libros. Disponible en línea.

Lüdtke, Helmut (1974), Historia del léxico románico, Madrid: Gredos.

Luque Toro, Luis(2012): Manual práctico de usos de la fraseología española actual. Madrid: Editorial Verbum.

Martes neológico: https://blogscvc.cervantes.es/martes-neologico/

Miguel Aparicio, Elena de (ed.) (2009): Panorama de la lexicología. Barcelona: Ariel.

Penny, Ralph (2006): Gramática histórica del español. Barcelona: Ariel, capítulos 4 y 5.

Prat Sabater,Marta (2016): «Proceso de integración de las incorporaciones léxicas en español: aspectos teóricos y presencia lexicográfica», Anuario de Letras (Lingüística y Filología), vol. IV, sem. 2, pp. 245-295. Disponible en línea: http://dx.doi.org/10.19130/iifl.adel.4.2.2016.1398

Prat Sabater, Marta (2016): «Las unidades fraseológicas temporales utilizadas en el contexto bilingüe español-catalán», en Poch Olivé, Dolors (ed.), El español en contacto con las otras lenguas peninsulares. Madrid - Frankfurt am Main: Iberoamericana - Vervuert, pp. 265-295.

Prat Sabater, Marta (2019): «El sufijo -ing en español y catalán: análisis contrastivo desde la perspectiva lexicográfica», Revista de Investigación Lingüística, 22,pp. 369-396. Disponible en línea: https://revistas.um.es/ril/article/view/391571

Ruiz Gurillo, Leonor (1997): Aspectos de fraseología teórica española. València:Universitat de València.

Santos, Luis A., y Rosa M.ª Espinosa (1996): Manual de semántica histórica. Madrid: Síntesis.

Verdonk, Robert: «Cambios en el léxico del español durante la época de los Austrias», in Rafael Cano (coord.), Historia de la lengua española, Barcelona: Ariel, 895-916.


It is important to have a computer with camera, microphone and headphones so as to be able to connect to class and to tutorials if it's necessary.