This version of the course guide is provisional until the period for editing the new course guides ends.

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The Bible. Origins and Tradition

Code: 104228 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
2503702 Ancient Studies OT 4 0


Oscar Luis Cruz Palma

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
catalan (cat)
Some groups entirely in English:
Some groups entirely in Catalan:
Some groups entirely in Spanish:


Jordi Vidal Palomino


It is recommended to have taken the Greek and Latin subjects of the degree in Ancient Sciences, as well as the subject of "Història i civilització del Pròxim Orient".

Objectives and Contextualisation

Acquire a specialized lexicon on the tradition of the biblical text.

Achieve a comprehensive understanding of the history of the books of the Bible.

Know the historical framework in which the actions of the biblical texts take place.

Acquire work systems that allow identifying characteristics of biblical texts in their Greek and Latin redactions.

Deepen the linguistic study of Greek and Latin through the reading of biblical texts.Know the various translations into later languages, especially those of the Catalan and Spanish tradition.

Acquire awareness of the importance of the biblical text in the formation of various literary or scientific traditions that depend on it.

Relate the biblical tradition with other sacred texts: the Talmud and the Qur'an.


  • Be able to express oneself orally and in writing in the specific language of history, archaeology and philology, both in one's own languages and a third language.
  • Carry out projects on aspects of the ancient world using a holistic approach.
  • Interrelate linguistic, historical and archaeological knowledge of the ancient world with knowledge of other areas of the humanities, mainly ancient literature, philosophy and art.
  • Students must be capable of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialised and non-specialised audiences.
  • Students must develop the necessary learning skills to undertake further training with a high degree of autonomy.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Autonomously searching, selecting and processing information both from structured sources (databases, bibliographies, specialized magazines) and from across the network.
  2. Effectively communicating and applying the argumentative and textual processes to formal and scientific texts.
  3. Identify different literary elements and their insertion in different texts and styles of discourse.
  4. Preparing an oral and written discourse in the corresponding language in a proper and organized way.
  5. Recognise the influence of the Greco-Latin literary genres and works in texts of the post-classical European literary tradition.
  6. Write a commentary on a Greek or Latin literary text based on an analysis of the text itself, its cultural context and its subsequent influence.


1. Terminology related to biblical studies

2. Structure of the Bible

3. Historical interpretations: Jewish hermeneutics, Christian hermeneutics, modern and postmodern hermeneutics

4. History of the biblical text: Precedents: the literature of the Near East; The period of the first temple (origins - 586 BC); The period of the second temple (538 - 333 BC); Maccabean epoch (164 - 37 BC); Herodian Period (37 BC - 70 CE); Rabbinic - Apostolic - Subapostolic period (70 - 135 CE)

5. Versions of the Bible: Hebrew version: Hebrew biblical traditions; Greek versions: the translation of the Seventy; Latin versions: Veteras translations and the Latin Vulgate of St. Jerome.

6. Comparative grammatical study between the version of the Seventy and the Latin Vulgate.

7. Spanish versions; Catalan versions of the Bible.

8. Biblical traditions and use of the Bible: apocrypha, Qumran, deuterocanonical, patristic literature, exegesis, devotional texts, medieval chronicles, legal texts, hagiographic literature, etc.

9. Approach to the relationship between biblic texts and talmudic and qur'anic traditions.


A dossier will be distributed with texts that facilitate the study of the various topics of the subject.

The students will have to deepen in the study of the contents with the delivery of diverse essays, whose delivery will be determined at the beginning of the course.

In the event that the number of students does not exceed 30 enrollments, the work will be publicly displayed in the classroom.

The teaching methodology and the evaluation proposed in the guide may undergo some modification depending on the face-to-face restrictions imposed by the health authorities.

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Classroom practices and learning exercises 55 2.2 6, 4, 2, 3, 5
Type: Supervised      
Tutorials 20 0.8 1, 6, 4, 2
Type: Autonomous      
Individual study and readings. Writings and bibliographical research 75 3 1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5


Delivery of 4 essays (maximum 3 pages each and worth 15% of the grade: total 60%) will be requested within the deadlines indicated at the beginning of the course: 5% of this grade will be for the presentation of the worksin the classroom (maximum 15 minutes in each case).If the number of students enrolled prevents the exhibition, the 15% mark will be applied to each written work.

The topics of the essays will be the following:

* Historical analysis of a passage from the Old Testament (a selection of texts will be provided in class)

* Historical analysis of a New Testament passage (a selection of texts will be provided in class)

* Elaboration of a linguistic study on the quality of some of the Castilian or Catalan versions (to be determined).

* Detailed study of a linguistic element (morphological, syntactic, lexical, etc.) characteristic of biblical and Christian texts (whether in their LXX or VL version).

Two final exams, 20% of the final result for each other: despite the result of the evaluation of the indicated tests, this test will be mandatory.

At the time of each evaluation activity, the teacher will inform the students (Moodle) of the procedure and date of review of the grades. The student will receive the grade of "Not assessable" as long as she has not delivered more than 30% of the evaluation activities.

In the event that the student performs any irregularity that may lead to a significant variation in the rating of an evaluation act, this evaluation act will be scored 0, regardless of the disciplinary process that may be instructed. In the event that there are several irregularities in the evaluation acts of the same subject, the final grade for this subject will be 0. In the event that the tests cannot be done in person, their format will be adapted (maintaining the weighting) to the possibilities offered by the UAB virtual tools. Homework, activities and class participation will be done through forums, wikis and / or exercise discussions through Teams, etc. The teacher will ensure that the student can access or offer alternative means, which are available to her.

Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Essay 1 15% 0 0 1, 4, 2, 3
Essay 2 15% 0 0 1, 6, 4, 2, 3
Essay 3 15% 0 0 1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5
Essay 4 15% 0 0 1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5
Exam 1 20% 0 0 6, 4, 2, 3, 5
Exam 2 20% 0 0 6, 4, 2, 3, 5


 The enormous existing bibliography on the Bible and its tradition forces us to choose some propaedeutic-type references and affordable editions so that students can immediately access the biblical texts. We leave aside in this selection the editions of Catalan or Spanish translations, editions of apocryphal texts, Qumran, hagiographic texts, etc. Throughout the course, reference will be made to different versions, editions and a more specific bibliography.


General Descriptions

Casciaro, José María (dir.) (2018), Sagrada Biblia. Comentario, Pamplona: Eunsa, Universidad de Navarra.

De Hamel, Christopher (2001), The Book. A History of The Bible, London: Phaidon.

De tuya, Manuel – Salguero, José (1967), Introducción a la Biblia: vol. I: Inspiración bíblica. Canon. Texto. Versiones, Madrid: BAC.

Pérez, Miguel – Trebolle, Julio (2006), Historia de la Biblia, Madrid: Trotta.

Piñero, Antonio – Beláez, Jesús (1995), El Nuevo Testamento. Introducción al estudio de los primeros escritos cristianos, Córdoba: Ediciones El almendro.

Porter, J.R. (1995), The illustrated Guide of the Bible, London: Duncan Baird Publishers Ltd. (trad. cast. La Biblia. Las Sagradas Escrituras, los Libros Apócrifos, la llegada de Roma (Palestina en tiempos de Cristo) y el Nuevo Testamento, Barcelona, 2007).

Römer, Thomas et al. (eds.) (2008), Introducción al Antiguo Testamento, Bilbao: Desclée de Brouwer (orig. fr. Introduction à l’Ancien Testament, 2004).

Trebolle, Julio, (1993), La Biblia judía y la Biblia cristiana, Madrid: Trotta.


Cultural and Historical Topics


Armstrong, Karen (1997), Jerusalén. Una ciudad y tres religiones, Barcelona: Paidós (orig. angl. Jerusalem. One city, three faiths, New York, 1996).

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971-2007), 26 vols, Jerusalem–New York. (actualiza su redacción en la versión on-line).

Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI1: 1913-1938; EI2: 1954-2005; EI3: 2007-), Boston: Brill.

Gerard, André-Marie (1989), Dictionnaire de la Bible, Paris: Robert Laffont (trad. cast. Diccionario de la Biblia, Madrid: Anaya, 1996).

Keller, Werner (1994), Historia del pueblo judío. Desde la destrucción del Templo al nuevo estado de Israel, Barcelona: Omega (orig. alem. Und Wurden Zerstreut unter alle Völker, München–Zürich, 1966).

Küng, Hans (1993), El judaísmo. Pasado, presente, futuro, Madrid: Trotta (orig. alem. Das Judentum, 1991)

Liverani, Mario (2005), Más allá de la Biblia. Historia antigua de Israel, Barcelona: Crítica (orig. it. Oltre la Bibbia, 2003).

Montserrat Torrents, José (1989), La sinagoga cristiana. El gran conflicto religioso del siglo I, Barcelona: Muchnik Editores.

Ohler, Annemarie (dir.) (2004), dtv-Atlas. Bibel, München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Wigoder, Geoffrey (dir.) (1989), Dictionnaire encyclopédique du judaïsme, Paris: Cerf–Robert Laffont.

Rinaldi, Giancerlo (2008), Cristianesimi nell’Antichità. Sviluppi storici e contesti geografici (Secoli I-VIII), Chieti–Roma: Edizioni GBU.

Schürer, Emil (1985), Historia del pueblo judío en tiempos de Jesús, 175 a.C-135 d.C.: vol. I: Fuentes y marco histórico; vol. II: Instituciones políticas y religiosas, Madrid: Ediciones Cristiandad (orig. alem. Leipzig, 1901-1909; rev. angl. Edinburg, 1979).

Zwickel, Wolfgang (dir.) (2000), calwer-Bibelatlas, Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag.


Dictionnaires and Words for the study of the Literature and Biblical Languages


Abreviaturas y sistemática de citación: AA.DD. (2008), Llibre d’estil per a escrits de Teologia i Filosofia, Barcelona: Facultat de Teologia de Catalunya – Facultat de Filosofia de Catalunya (URL) – Associació Bíblica de Catalunya.


Semitical Tradition


Aranda Pérez, Gonzalo – García Martínez, Florentino – Pérez Hernández, Miguel (2019), Literatura judía intertestamentaria, Estella: Verbo divino.

Chapman, Stephem B. – Sweeney, Marvin A. (eds.) (2008), The Cambridge Companion to the Hebrew Bible / Old Testament, Cambridge.

Farfán Navarro, Enrique (1998), Gramática elemental del hebreo bíblico, Estella: Verbo divino.

Millás Vallicrosa, José Maria (1967), Literatura hebraicoespañola, Barcelona: Labor.

Seijas, Guadalupe (dir.) (2014), Historia de la literatura hebrea y judía, Madrid: Trotta.

Tarragona Borrás, Judit (1995), Diccionariohebreo–español (bíblico, rabínico, medieval, moderno), Madrid: Riopiedras.


Greek Tradition


Delgado Jara, Inmaculada (2011), Gramática griega del Nuevo Testamento, 2 vols. morlogía – sintaxis, Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia – Verbo divino.

Delgado Jara, Inmaculada (2014), Diccionario griego–español del Nuevo Testamento, Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia – Verbo divino.

García Santos, Amador Ángel (2011), Diccionario del griego bíblico. Setenta y Nuevo Testamento, Estella: Verbo divino.

García Santos, Amador Ángel (2018), Introducción al griego bíblico. Instrumentos para el estudio de la Biblia, Estella: Verbo divino.

Zerwick, Max (1997), El griego del Nuevo Testamento, Estella: Verbo divino (orig. Roma, 1996).



Latin Tradition


Berger, Samuel (1893), Histoire de la Vulgate pendant les premiers siècles du Moyen Âge, Paris.

Blaise, Albert (1955), Manuel du latin chrétien, Turnhoult: Brepols.

Blaise, Albert (19751), Lexicon Latinitatis Medii Aevi, Turnhoult: Brepols.

Niermeyer, Jan Frederik – Van de Rieft, C. – Burgers, J.W.J. (19761), Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon minus, Leiden-Boston: Brill.

Mohrmann, Christine (1961-1997), Études sur le latin des chrétiens, 4 vols. Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura. (recoge el conjunto de estudios publicados de la autora).

Norberg, Dag (1968), Manuel pratique de latin médiéval, Paris: Éditions A. & Picard.

Stegmüller, Fridericus (1950-1980), Repertorium biblicum medii aevi, 11 vols., Madrid: CSIC. [en línea: Repertorium Biblicum Medii Aevi [digital] (]

Stotz, Peter (2013), Il latino nel medioevo, Firenze: Sismel (és una part trad. a l’it. del seu monumental Lateinische Sprache des Mittelalters, 5 vols., München: Verlag C.H. Beck, 1996-2004)


Editions of the Biblical Text (easy access) 

Aramaic-Hebraic Text


Kittel, Rudolf (19371), Biblia hebraica, Stuttgart: Würgtembergische Bibelamstalt Stuttgart.

Berlin, Adele – Brettler, Marc Zvi (19851), The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (trad. ingl. del texto hebreo con comentarios de tradición judía).

Díez Macho, Alejandro (dir.) (1984), Apócrifos del Antiguo Testamento, VI vols., Madrid: Ediciones Cristiandad.

Levine, Amy-Jill – Brettler, Marc Zvi (2001), The Jewish Annotated New Testament, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (trad. ingl. del texto hebreo con comentarios de tradición judía)


Greek Text


Rahlfs, Alfred (19351), Septuaginta, id est Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta lxx interpretes, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.

Nestle, Erwin– Aland, Kurt (2014), Novum Testamentum graece et latine (con el texto latino fijado para la Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum NVulg), Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.


Synoptical Gospels


Lagrange, M.J. – Carreras, Ll. – Llovera, J.M. (1927), Sinopsi evangèlica. Text grec i versió catalana, Barcelona: Fundació Bíblica Catalana – Ed. Alpha.

Leal, Juan (1954), Sinopsis de los cuatro Evangelios, Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos [solo traducción cast.]


Latin Text


Vetus latina Hispana

Only exist two partial editions:


Ayuso Marazulea, Teófilo (1953), La Vetus Latina Hispana, vol. I: Prolegómenos, Madrid: CSIC).

Ayuso Marazulea, Teófilo (1962), La Vetus Latina Hispana, vol. V: El Salterio, Madrid: CSIC).

Ayuso Marazulea, Teófilo (1967), La Vetus Latina Hispana, vol. II: El Octateuco, Madrid: CSIC).

Morano Rodríguez, Ciriaca (1990), Glosas marginales de Vetus Latina en Biblias Vulgatas Españolas1-2 Samuel, Madrid: CSIC.

Moreno Hernández, Antonio (1992), Glosas marginales de Vetus Latina en Biblias Vulgatas Españolas1-2 Reyes, Madrid: CSIC.

Cañas Reíllo, Manuel (2000), Glosas marginales de Vetus Latina en Biblias Vulgatas Españolas1-2 Macabeos, Madrid: CSIC.


Vulgata latina


Weber, Robertus (19691), Biblia sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. [da preferencia a la versión anterior a la Sixto-Clementina]

Nestle, Erwin– Aland, Kurt (2014), Novum Testamentum graece et latine (con el texto latino fijado para la Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum NVulg), Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.


Prefaces of the VL


De Bruyne, Donatien (19201, reed. 2015), Prefaces to the Latin Bible, Turnhout: Brepols.

De Bruyne, Donatien (19141, reed. 2014), Summaries, Divisions and Rubrics of theLatin Bible, Turnhout: Brepols.


on-line access


Hebrea: The Sefaria Library


LXX: Read the Bible text ::


NT: Read the Bible text ::


Vulgata latina: Read the Bible text ::


Neovulgata latina: Nova Vulgata - Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio (


Biblia Medieval - Página principal


Biblia Paralela


Erasmus Roterodamus: Novum instrumentum UCM - Biblioteca Histórica Marqués de Valdecilla - también en (con imágenes de las páginas): Printed Books = Novum Instrumentum - CSNTM


Biblia del oso: LA BIBLIA DEL OSO  RV 1569 ONLINE (


Glosa ordinaria (ed. Adolf Rush, Strasbourg, 1480-1481): on line: Rusch - Glossa Ordinaria Project (


Estudies about the Bible and Literature and Science


Del Olmo Lete, Gregorio (2015), La Biblia hebrea en la literatura. Guía temática y bibliográfica, Barcino Monographica Orientalia 5, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona [actualitzación y ampliación de su trabajo anterior: La Biblia hebrea en la literatura moderna. Guía temática y bibliográfica, Textos Docents 215, Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2000].

Fernández López, Sergio (2003), Lectura y prohibición de la Biblia en lengua vulgar. Defensores y detractores, León: Universidad de León.

Reinhardt, Klaus – Santiago-Otero, Horacio (1986), Biblioteca bíblica ibérica medieval, Madrid: CSIC.


Pdf - PowerPoint - Regular Programms for the Editions of Texts (Word)