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2021/2022

Superimposed Voices and Respeaking B-A

Code: 44381 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
4315982 Audiovisual Translation OB 0 2
The proposed teaching and assessment methodology that appear in the guide may be subject to changes as a result of the restrictions to face-to-face class attendance imposed by the health authorities.

Contact

Name:
Judith CortÚs Villarroya
Email:
Judith.Cortes@uab.cat

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
spanish (spa)

Other comments on languages

Although the language of teaching is Spanish, students will be able to translate into Catalan.

Teachers

Sara Bonjoch Llaquet

External teachers

Pablo Romero Fresco

Prerequisites

There are no prerequisites.

Objectives and Contextualisation

  • Knowing the history and legal context of live subtitling at national and international level.
  • Knowing the user's reality.
  • Understanding and analysing different audiovisual products with live subtitles.
  • Performing live subtitling of various types with their corresponding registers.
  • Getting to know the software, techniques and characteristics of live subtitles.
  • Acquiring theoretical knowledge and practical skills for creating subtitles using speech recognition.
  • Getting to know the voice-over technique and its different working systems: translation for postproduction (with and without script and synch) and for production (translation without script and adaptation).
  • Getting to know voice-over conventions and apply them according to the type of product.

Competences

  • Act in accordance with the code of ethics of the profession.
  • Continue the learning process, to a large extent autonomously.
  • Discern the different modes and textual genres of audiovisual translation and media accessibility and their characteristics.
  • Manage projects in audiovisual translation, accessibility, multimedia localisation, and translation of web pages and video games.
  • Master strategies for the correction, linguistic revision and post-edition of audiovisual products.
  • Recognise the translation problems specific to the different modes of audiovisual products and use the knowledge acquired to solve them.
  • Translate and make accessible audiovisual products, multimedia products, web pages, video games and software.
  • Use specific software to translate and make accessible audiovisual products, multimedia products and video games.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Act in accordance with the code of ethics of the profession.
  2. Continue the learning process, to a large extent autonomously.
  3. Identify and correct errors in products translated through voice-over and respeaking.
  4. Identify the principal characteristics of the voice-over and respeaking modes.
  5. Produce translations for voice-overs and respeaking that fulfill the industry's professional standards.
  6. Produce translations that conform to restrictions of space using respeaking technology.
  7. Produce translations that conform to restrictions of space using the voice-over technique, with or without a script.
  8. Recognise the financial and professional aspects of the respeaking and voice-over sector.
  9. Solve translation problems related to respeaking.
  10. Solve translation problems related to voice-overs.
  11. Use software to translate through speech recognition.
  12. Work in and lead teams engaging in translation for voice-over or respeaking.

Content

Voice over

  • Theoretical aspects of voice over. Synchronies and main features.
  • Practical aspects of voice over: typology and working systems, time codes, formatting and script types.
  • The translation of documentaries: narrators and interviewees.
  • The translation of realitiy shows and film additional materials.
  • Aspects of linguistic variation. Terminological and formal aspects.
  • Translation of unknown languages with English script.
  • Translation with and without script.

Respeaking

  • Live subtitling: definition, origins and types of subtitles.
  • National and international panorama of live subtitling.
  • The user: reception of live subtitles.
  • Familiarization with the creation of subtitles through speech recognition software.
  • Familiarization and techniques to create subtitles by respeaking.
  • Respeaking practice with Dragon software with videos of different formats, live television, congresses and other uses of respeaking.
  • Tricks and techniques for a good, efficient and accurate result.
  • Research practices, dictation, self-editing and joint editing.
  • Current affairs programmes, sports, entertainment, congresses, live events.
  • Working conditions and risk prevention for subtitlers.

 

Methodology

The tools provided by UAB Virtual Campus and Teams Plataform are used for virtual teaching modalities.
The following methodologies will be used:

  • Performing translation tasks.
  • Performing translation projects.
  • Exercise resolution.
  • Performing of individual/group work.
  • Debates (in forums).
  • Cooperative learning techniques.

Didactic activities are organized in three blocks, according to the degree of autonomy required:

  • a) Directed activities: the management of the lecturer is required to perform these activities.
  • b) Supervised activities: a more or less punctual supervision by the lecturer is required to perform these activities.
  • c) Autonomous activities: student organize themselves in time and effort in an autonomous way (individually or in groups).

Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.

Activities

Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Online master classes and problem solving 36 1.44 1
Type: Supervised      
Activities supervised by the lecturer 18 0.72 1, 2
Type: Autonomous      
Autonomous work of students 96 3.84 1

Assessment

Assessment 

Assessment is continuous. Students must provide evidence of their progress by completing 4 tasks.Task deadlines will be indicated in the course schedule on the first day of class. The  information on  assessment activities and their weighting is  a guide. The subject's lecturer will provide full information when teaching begins. 

Review 

When publishing final marks prior to recording them on students' transcripts, the lecturer will provide written notification of a date and time for reviewing assessment activities. Students must arrange reviews in agreement with the lecturer. 

Missed/failed assessment activities 

Students may retake assessment activities they have failed or compensate for any they have missed, provided that those they have actually performed account for a minimum of 66.6% (two thirds) of the subject's final mark and that they have a weighted average mark of at least 3.5.  

The lecturer will inform students of the procedure involved, in writing, when publishing final marks prior to recording them on transcripts. The lecturer may set one assignment per failed or missed assessment activity or a single assignment to cover a number of such activities. Under no circumstances may an assessment activity worth 100% of the final mark be retaken or compensated for.  

Classification as "not assessable" 

In the event of the assessment activities a student has performed accounting for just 25% or less of the subject's final mark, their work will be classified as "not assessable" on their transcript. 

Misconduct in assessment activities 

Students who engage in misconduct (plagiarism, copying, personation, etc.) in an assessment activity will receive a mark of “0” for the activity in question. In the case of misconduct in more than one assessment activity, the student involved will be given a final mark of “0” for the subject. Assessment activities in which irregularities have occurred (e.g. plagiarism, copying, impersonation) are excluded from recovery. 

 

Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Continuous assessment exercises (voice-over) 10 0 0 1, 5, 3, 12, 10, 2, 7
Participation in class/fora of Respeaking 10 0 0 1, 4, 8, 9, 2
Participation in voice over fora 10 0 0 1, 8, 10, 2, 7
Respeaking exercise 1 20 0 0 1, 5, 3, 4, 9, 2, 6, 11
Respeaking exercise 2 20 0 0 1, 5, 3, 4, 9, 2, 6, 11
Voice over exercice 2 15 0 0 1, 5, 4, 10, 2, 7
Voice over exercise 1 15 0 0 1, 5, 4, 10, 2, 7

Bibliography

Live subtitling

Arumí Ribas, M. and P. Romero-Fresco (2008) ‘A Practical Proposal for the Training of Respeakers’, Journal of Specialised Translation 10: 106-127. Available online: http://www.jostrans.org/issue10/art_arumi.php [last access 19 November 2015].

CSA (2011) Charte relative à la qualité du sous-titrage à destination des personnes sourdes ou malentendantes, Paris: Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel. Available online: http://www.csa.fr/Espace-juridique/Chartes/Charte-relative-a-la-qualite-du-sous-titrage-a-destination-des-personnes-sourdes-ou-malentendantes-Decembre-2011 [last access 19 November 2015].

Dumouchel, P., G. Boulianne and J. Brousseau (2011) ‘Measures for quality of closed captioning’, in A. Şerban, A. Matamala and J.-M. Lavaur (eds) Audiovisual Translation in Close-up: Practical and Theoretical Approaches, Bern: Peter Lang, 161-172.

English Broadcasters Group (EBG) (2014) Report on Efforts to Improve the Quality of Closed Captioning, Toronto: EBG. Available online: http://www.crtc.gc.ca/fra/BCASTING/ann_rep/bmt_cbc_rm_sm.pdf [last access 19November2015].

Eugeni, C. (2008a) ‘Respeaking the News for the Deaf: for a real special needs-oriented subtitling’, Studies in English Language and Literature, 21, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei.

Eugeni, C. (2008b) ‘A Sociolinguistic Approach to Real-time Subtitling: Respeaking vs. Shadowing and Simultaneous Interpreting’, in C. J. Kellett Bidoli and E. Ochse (eds) English in International Deaf Communication, Bern: Peter Lang, 357-82.

Eugeni, C. (2009) ‘Respeaking the BBC News: A Strategic Analysis of Respeaking on the BBC’, The Sign LanguageTranslator and Interpreter, 3(1): 29-68.

Eugeni, C. (2012) ‘A Strategic Model for the Analysis of Respoken TV Subtitles’, US-China Foreign Language, Vol. 10, No. 6.

Eugeni, C. and G. Mack (2006) (eds) Intralinea, Special Issue on New Technologies in Real Time Intralingual Subtitling. Available online: http://www.intralinea.org/specials/respeaking [last access on 19 November 2015).

Lambourne, A., J. Hewitt, C. Lyon and S. Warren (2004) ‘Speech-Based Real-Time Subtitling Services’, International Journal of Speech Technology 7(4): 269–79.

Luyckx, B., T. Delbeke, L. Van Waes, M. Leijten and A. Remael (2013) ‘Live Subtitling with Speech Recognition. Causes and Consequences of Text Reduction’, Across Languages and Cultures 14 (1): 15-46.

Matthews, L. (2015) Getting the Full Picture? Viewers’ experiences of television Subtitling, London: AOHL (Action on Hearing Loss).

Mikul, C. (2014) Caption Quality: International approaches to standards and measurement, Sydney: Media Access Australia.

Matamala, A., P. Romero-Fresco and L. Daniluk (forthcoming) ‘An Exploratory Study on the Use of Respeaking for The Transcription of Non-fictional Genres’, submitted to META.

OFCOM (2015a) Measuring live subtitling quality: Results from the fourth sampling exercise, London: Office of Communications. Available online: http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/subtitling/statement/QoS_4th_Report.pdf [last access 19 November 2015].

Remael, A. and B. van der Veer (2006) ‘Real-Time Subtitling in Flanders: Needs and Teaching’, in C. Eugeni and G. Mack (eds) Intralinea, Special Issue on Respeaking. Availableonline: http://www.intralinea.org/specials/article/Real-Time_Subtitling_in_Flanders_Needs_and_Teaching [last access 19 November 2015].

Remael, A., L. Van Waes and M. Leijten (2014) ‘Live Subtitling with Speech Recognition – How to pinpoint the challenges?’, in D. Abend-David (ed.) Media and translation: An interdisciplinary approach, London: Bloomsbury, 121-147.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2009) ‘More Haste Less Speed: Edited vs. Verbatim Respeaking’, Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics (VIAL) VI: 109-33.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2010) ‘Standing on quicksand: viewers’ comprehension and reading patterns of respoken subtitles for the news’, in J. Díaz-Cintas, A. Matamala and J. Neves (eds) New insights into audiovisual translation and media accessibility, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 175-195.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2011) Subtitling through Speech Recognition: Respeaking, Manchester: Routledge.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2012) ‘Respeaking in Translator Training Curricula. Present and Future Prospects’, The Interpreter and Translator Trainer (ITT) 6-1: 91 – 112.  

Romero-Fresco, P. (2012b) ‘Quality in live subtitling: the reception of respoken subtitles in the UK’, in A. Remael, P.Orero and M. Carroll (eds) Audiovisual translation and media accessibility at the crossroads, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 111-133.

Romero-Fresco, P. (2015) ‘Final Thoughts: Viewing Speed’, in P. Romero-Fresco (ed.) The Reception of Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Berlin: Peter Lang, 335-343.

Romero-Fresco, P. and J. Martínez (2015) ‘Accuracy Rate in Live Subtitling: The NER model’, in J.Díaz Cintas and R. Baños (eds) Audiovisual Translation in a Global Context: Mapping an Ever-changing Landscape, Palgrave Macmillan, 28-50.

Romero-Fresco, Pablo and Eugeni, C. (2020). Live subtitling through respeaking. In Łukasz Bogucki and Mikołaj Deckert (Eds.), Handbook of Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, Palgrave.

 

Voice-over

Cabré, Teresa (1999) La terminología: representación y comunicación. Barcelona: Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.(Sèrie monografies, 3).

Díaz-Cintas, Jorge & Orero, Pilar (2005) “Screen Translation, Voice-over”. Encyclopedia of Languages, Londres: Elsevier, 473.

Espasa, Eva (2004) “Myths about documentary translation”. En P. Orero(ed.) Topics in Audiovisual Translation, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 183-197.

Franco, Eliana P.C. (2000) Revoicing the Alien in Documentaries. Cultural Agency, Norms and the Translation of Audiovisual Realityhttp://tede.ibict.br/tde_arquivos/1/TDE-2005-02-23T06:09:47Z-94/Publico/ElianaPCFranco.pdf.

----     (2001) “Voiced-over television documentaries. Terminological and conceptual issues for their research”, Target 13:2, 289-304.

Franco, Eliana P.C.; Matamala, anna; Orero, Pilar (2010) Voice-over Translation: an Overview. Berna: Peter Lang. 2ª edición de 2012.

Gambier, Yves (2000) “Comunicación audiovisual y traducción: perspectivas y contribuciones”, en Lorenzo, Lourdes i Pereira, Ana M. (eds.) Traducción subordinada (1). Eldoblaje (inglés-español-galego). Vigo: Servicio de Publicacións, Universidade de Vigo.

Grigaraviciute, I. ; Gottlieb, H. (1999) “Danish Voices, Lithuanian Voice-over. The Mechanics of Non-Synchronous Translation”, Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 7:1, 41-80.

Iturregui-Gallardo, Gonzalo; Matamala, Anna (2021) "Audio subtitling: dubbing and voice-over effects and their impact on user experience". Perspectives. Studies in Translatology, 29(1), 64-83. Open Access. Online published in 2020.

Lozano, D.; Matamala, Anna (2009) The translation of terminology in TV fiction series: the Spanish dubbing of ER. VIAL,  6, 73-87.

Matamala, Anna (2010) Terminological challenges in the translation of science documentaries: a case-study. Across Languages and Cultures 11(2), 255-272.

Matamala, Anna (2019) "Voice-over: practice, research and future prospects". Pérez-González, Luis (ed) The Routledge Handbook of Audiovisual Translation. Milton Park, UK: Routledge, 64-81.

Matamala, Anna (2019) Traducció audiovisual i accessibilitat. Vic: Eumo.

Matamala, Anna (2020). "Translating non-fictional genres: voice-over and off-screen dubbing". In L. Bogucki, M. Deckert (eds) The Palgrave Handbook of audiovisual translation and media, 133-148. Palgrave Macmillan, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42105-2_7

Orero, Pilar (2004) “The Pretended Easiness of Voice-over Translation of TV Interviews”, a Jostrans 2 [www.jostrans.org/issue02/articles/p_orero.htm]

 ----     (2005)“La traducciónde entrevistas para voice-over”. En Zabalbeascoa, P.; Santamaria, L & F. Chaume (eds) La traducción audiovisual: investigación, enseñanza y profesión. Granada: Comares, 213-222.

----     (2009) “Voice-over in audiovisual translation”. En Anderman, G; Díaz-Cintas, J. (eds). Audiovisual translation. Language transfer on screen. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 130-139.

----      (2011) “The Process of Translation for the Production of TV Programmes broadcast by Voice-over”.En Díaz-Cintas, Jorge (ed.) Audiovisual Translation: Language Transfer on Screen. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Software

Respeaking

Dragon Naturally Speaking and Webcaptioner.