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Comparative Employment Policies in the European Union

Code: 44037 ECTS Credits: 6
Degree Type Year Semester
4313228 Social Policy, Employment and Welfare OT 0 1
The proposed teaching and assessment methodology that appear in the guide may be subject to changes as a result of the restrictions to face-to-face class attendance imposed by the health authorities.


Joan Rodriguez Soler

Use of Languages

Principal working language:
spanish (spa)


Faustino Miguelez Lobo Miguélez Lobo
Miguel Angel Purcalla Bonilla
Joan Miquel Verd Pericàs


It is advisable to be able to read academic articles in English.

Objectives and Contextualisation

This module aims to achieve a double objective: to explain how the EU employment strategies are working and to what extent they influence the employment policies of the various member countries, particularly Spain. But the policies are only understandable if we look at the economic context and the different labour realities of the countries that make up the EU. For these reasons, the existence of different employment models and the effects of the economic context are taken into account; distinguishing the expansion period from recession period and emphasizing the different effects of the crisis, now receding until the pandemic, on the EU member countries in terms of employment.

Based on the above, the module raises a series of questions - presented in four thematic areas - to answer them with the theoretical and empirical elements that we can now have in a comparative perspective. In short, the following topics are addressed in these areas:

I) Data on the labour market in the EU member countries and its evolution (session 1). Characteristics of European employment models in the last 20 years. The European Employment Strategy, national employment policies and their changes (session 4).

II) Employment policies aimed at young people in the EU and their changes as a result of the crisis. Typology of European transition regimes between training and employment and their link with youth trajectories towards employment. Analysis of EU employment policies aimed at the young population (sessions 5 and 6).

III) The sources and norms of community law that regulate working conditions in aspects of the basic employment policies for the success of the same: hiring, regulation of the conditions of employment of a fixed duration, part-time, etc. (sessions 2 and 3)

IV) Local employment policies and their relationship with the European Employment Strategy. The criteria for activation in the EU and the concretion of active employment policies in the territory to promote social cohesion (sessions 7 and 8).


The analysis carried out in the different thematic areas will allow students to better understand EU policies, especially capturing their application in Spain, while attending to the differences that continue to exist between EU member countries.



  • Design, implement and evaluate social and labour policies affecting the relationship between work, employment and welfare.
  • Recognise the main economic, political, social and cultural transformations of complex societies in order to analyse the fundamental challenges they pose to equality and welfare.
  • Use and manage bibliography and IT resources in the field of study.
  • Work individually and in multidisciplinary, international teams.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Analyse theoretically the relationship between work and welfare in complex societies.
  2. Compile and interpret data and indicators to show the dynamics of the labour market: employment, unemployment, temporary employment and other atypical forms of employment.
  3. Identify the main lines of research on employment policy in the European Union.
  4. Identify the main problem areas in employment policies.
  5. Recognise the main concepts, categories and theories used to approach the study of the labour market.
  6. Use and manage bibliography and IT resources in the field of study.
  7. Work individually and in multidisciplinary, international teams.


TEACHING STAFF: Joan Rodríguez Soler (sessions 1, 7 and 8), Fausto Miguélez (session 4), Miguel Ángel Purcalla (sessions 2 and 3) and Joan Miquel Verd (sessions 5 and 6).


Thematic area I: Models, strategy and national employment policies in the EU

Session 1. Introduction to the module.


Description of the content of the module and the specification of the assessment mechanisms that will be used.

The importance of employment policies in the EU to tackle the effects of the crisis. Trends and data on employment in the EU in recent years, with special attention to the Spanish case.

Session 4. European Employment Strategy and national employment policies: from the period of expansion to the period of crisis and its exit.

Changes in employment are linked to the flexibility strategy and globalization. The European Commission develops a common strategy to face the problems of employment (unemployment and bad employment), but the policies in the countries move from supposed Social Democrats to Neoliberal approaches, based on criteria of global competitiveness (also intra-EU). The instruments are labour market reforms. But the latest crisis puts austerity (fighting deficit and inflation) above any policy. This leads to even more profound reforms in the labour market that add to the contractual flexibility the precariousness of wages, even so, there are still differences between countries.

Thematic area II: Sources and norms of community law that regulate employment conditions

Session 2. Fundamental rights of workers protected by the EU in employment policies.

Analysis of the general regulatory framework established by the EU on working and employment conditions, as well as information and consultation of workers. In particular, reference will be made to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, but also to other normative instruments. The main judgments of the CJEU on the matter will also be commented; as well as the Uber, Deliveroo, Rider cases, etc.

Session 3. Fixed-term employment contracts.

The session explains the European directives that refer to both "direct" determined recruitment and temporary employment agencies ("indirect"). The role that these directives play in EU employment policy is discussed below.  The main judgments of the CJEU on the matter will also be discussed.


Thematic area III: Youth employment policies

Session 5 and 6. Employment policies and youth population.

These sessions will discuss the particular relationship of the young population with employment. The socio-demographic characteristics that influence the different employment situations of the young population will be studied, as well as the great differences that exist between the different countries of the European Union.

The relationship of the young population with employment is marked by the process of labour insertion, which in turn depends largely on the training path developed. Thus, it is impossible to talk about the relationship between young people and employmentwithout addressing the training-employment transition processes. In the current context, these transitions of young people to employment are not only marked by their educational level and their social origin, but also by the impact of the economic crisis. Although the economic recession has had diverse impacts on the labour insertion of young people throughout Europe, it is beyond doubt that the young population of working age has been the most affected by the current employment crisis.

Faced with the employment crisis among the young population, the European Commission has designed different policies. The most emblematic of all of them is the Youth Guarantee Program, which aims to break with the logic of the policies developed throughout the 20th century, once its low positive effect has been confirmed in a good number of countries. However, it is not clear that these objectives are being achieved, the reasons for this failure will also be addressed in the session.


Thematic area IV. European employment strategies and local employment policies

Session 7. Activation, quality of employment and new forms of employment.

EU perspectives on employment: the need to increase skills and competences within the framework of the "knowledge society". New forms of employment, the quality of employment and the importance of "training throughout life". Activation as a guiding criterion for European employment policies and their implementation at the local level.

Session 8. The local level of employment policies.

The influence of the criteria from the European strategy on employment and economic promotion policies carried out at the local level. The ways in which the application of activeemployment policies at the local level is specified.


The sessions will combine:

a) Theoretical presentations by the teaching staff

b) Classroom workshops about papers discussions, practical cases and/or intervention proposals

c) Follow-up and presentations of comparative analysis between two countries or employment policies, carried out by couples of students


At the same time, students will develop individual work where the knowledge acquired in the module will be applied.


Annotation: Within the schedule set by the centre or degree programme, 15 minutes of one class will be reserved for students to evaluate their lecturers and their courses or modules through questionnaires.


Title Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Type: Directed      
Classroom workshops 10 0.4 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6
Follow-up and presentation of comparative analysis 4 0.16 1, 5, 2, 4, 7, 6
Theoretical lessons 18 0.72 1, 5, 2, 3, 4
Type: Supervised      
Follow-up sessions 6 0.24 1, 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6
Type: Autonomous      
Individual essay 50 2 1, 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6
Preparing comparative analysis 28 1.12 1, 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6
Reading compulsory texts for workshops 20 0.8 1, 5, 3, 4, 7


 The assessment is based on the following activities:

1) Active participation in the discussion seminars held in class, based on the materials proposed by the teaching staff (20%) (individual)

2) Presentation of a comparative analysis of two countries or employment policies (30%) (in pairs). There will be a follow-up session and a presentation session of the final work.

3) Individual work linked to one of the thematic areas of the module (50%). The work will be an essay with these following options: a review of the literature on a certain topic, the analysis of a specific employment policy or the analysis of a country/labour market (individual). There will be individual follow-up sessions.

Assessment Activities

Title Weighting Hours ECTS Learning Outcomes
Comparative analysis 30% 4 0.16 1, 5, 2, 4, 7, 6
Individual essay 50% 0 0 1, 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6
Participation in workshops 20% 10 0.4 5, 3, 4, 7, 6


Basic References 

-Bosch Gerhard; Lehndorff, Steffen; Rubery, Jill (eds.) (2009):  European Employment Models in Flux. London: Palgrave McMillan.

-CES (2018). El futuro del trabajo. Madrid: CES.

-Lehndorff, Steffen (ed.) (2012). A triumph of failed ideas: European models of capitalism in the crisis. Brussels: ETUI.

-Miguélez, Fausto; Prieto, Carlos (2009): “Transformaciones del Empleo, Flexibilidad y Relaciones Laborales en Europa”. Política y Sociedad, 46 (1 and 2): 275-287.

-Miguélez, Fausto (coord.) (2015): Diagnostico socio-económico sobre las políticas de empleo en España, 2012-2014https://ddd.uab.cat/record/142865

-Molina, Óscar; Ibáñez, Zyab (2013): “Políticas de empleo en la UE: respuestas nacionales y europea a la crisis”. Anuario IET de trabajo y relaciones laborales, 1: 127-142.

-OIT (2015): Políticas nacionales de empleo: Una guía para las organizaciones de trabajadores. Ginebra: OIT.


Specific References

Thematic Area I. 

-Alujas, Juan Antonio (2006): “Las políticas activas del mercado de trabajo en España en el contexto de la Unión Europea”. Revista del Ministerio de Trabajo e Inmigración, 61: 77-92.

-CES (2005): Desequilibrios ocupacionales y políticas activas de empleo. Madrid: CES.

-Comisión Europea (2007): Hacia los principios comunes de la flexiguridad: más y mejor empleo mediante la flexibilidad y la seguridad. (COM(2007) 359 final, 27.6.2007)

-European Commission-Employment Committee (2010):  The employment crisis: policy responses, their effectiveness and the way ahead. 10184/10 Brussels, 31 May 2010.

-Díaz-Salazar, Rafael (2003): Trabajadores precarios. Los proletarios del siglo XXI. Madrid: HOAC.

-European Commission (Several years). The employment in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-European Commission (Several years). Employment and Social Developments in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-Leonardi, Laura et al. (2011): “¿Es exportable la flexiguridad? Un estudio comparado de Italia y España”. Cuadernos de Relaciones Laborales, 29 (2): 417-443.

-Leschke, Janine; Watt, Andrew (2010): How do institutions affect the labour market adjustment to the economic crisis in different EU countries? Brussels: ETUl.

-Lope, Andreu; Alós-Moner, Ramón (2013): “Las políticas activas de empleo en España: deficientes políticas para malos empleos”. Sociología del trabajo, 77: 92-116.

-López-Andreu, Martí (2016): “Crisis económica, austeridad y sus efectos en las transiciones laborales en mercado de trabajos flexibles: los ejemplos de España y el Reino Unido”. Anuario IET de trabajo y relaciones laborales, 3: 113-127.

-Mailand, Mikkel (2008): “The uneven impact of the European Employment Strategy on member states' employment policies: a comparative analysis”. Journal of European Social Policy, 18(4): 353-365.

-McKay, Sonia et al. (2012). Study on Precarious Work and Social Rights. Final Report.

-Miguélez, Fausto; Molina, Óscar (2015): “Políticas de empleo”. In C. Torres (Ed.): España 2015. Situación social (pp. 672–683). Madrid:CIS.

-Miguélez, Fausto (2010): "Cambiar las políticas de empleo a raíz de la crisis". In María Jesús Espuny and Olga Paz (coords.): Crisis y ocupación (pp.151-168). Barcelona: J.M. Bosch Editor.

-Moreno, Luis; Amparo Serrano A. (2008) “Europeanization and Spanish Welfare: The Case of Employment Policy”. In Ana M. Guillén and Margarita León (eds.) The Spanish Welfare State in European Context (pp. 39-58). Ashgate: Farnham.

-OIT (2004): Estudio general sobre la política del empleo. Ginebra: OIT.

-Prieto, Carlos (2013): “Las políticas de empleo en el marco de las metamorfosis de la norma social de empleo”. Clivatge Revista Digital, 2: 117-130.

-Rogowski, Ralf; Salais, Robert; Whiteside, Noel (eds.) (2011): Transforming European Employment Policy. Labour Market Transitions and the Promotion of Capability. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

-Standing, Guy (2012): The Precariat. The New Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury.

-Supiot, Alain (2001): Beyond employment changes in work and the future of labour law in Europe. Oxford: OUP.

-Tangian, Andranick (2010): “Not for bad weather: flexicurity challenged by the crisis”, ETUI Policy Brief, nº 3. Brussels: ETUI.

-Tridico, Pasquale (2013): “El impacto de la crisis económica en los mercados laborales de la Unión Europea: una perspectiva comparada”. Revista Internacional del Trabajo, 132 (2): 199-215


Thematic Area II.

Session 2

-Monereo Pérez, José Luís (2017): “Los principios del sistema jurídico internacional multinivel de garantía de los derechos fundamentales”. Revista General de Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social, 45.

-Pons Carmena, María (2015): Modelo social europeo y protección de los derechos sociales fundamentales. Reus.






Session 3







 Thematic Area III.

-Abbatecola, Emanuela; Lefresne, Florence;Verd, Joan Miquel; Vero, Josiane(2012): "Individual working lives through the lens of the capability approach: evaluation of policies and items for debate", Transfer, 18(1): 83-89.

-Berlingieri, Francesco, Bonin, Holger, Sprietsma, Maresa (2014): Youth Unemployment in Europe. Appraisal and Policy Options.  Sttutgart: Robert Bosch Stiftung.

-Blanchflower, David G. (2019): Not working. Where have all the good jobs gone? Princeton: Princeton University Press.

-Bolíbar, Mireia; Verd, Joan. M.; Barranco, Oriol (2019): “The downward spiral of youth unemployment: An approach considering social networks and family background”. Work, Employment and Society, 33(3): 401-421. 

-Bussi, Margherita, Geyer, Leonard (2013): Youth Guarantees and recent developments on measures against youth unemployment. A mapping exercise. Bruselas: ETUI.

-Caliendo, Marco; Schmidl, Ricarda (2016): "Youth unemployment and active labor market policies in Europe". https://izajolp.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40173-016-0057-x

-Casal, Joaquim; García, Maribel; Merino, Rafael; Miguel; Francesc J. (2006): "Changes in forms of transition in contexts of informational capitalism". Papers. Revista de Sociología, 79: 195-223.

-Castelló, Laia; Bolíbar, Mireia; Barranco, Oriol; Verd, Joan Miquel (2013): "Treball. Condicions en el mercat de treball i trajectòries laborals de la joventut catalana". In Pau Serracant (coord.): Enquesta de la Joventut de Catalunya 2012. Volum 1. Transicions juvenils i condicions materials d'existència (pp. 117-224). Barcelona: Direcció General de Joventut, Generalitat de Catalunya.

-Caprile, María; Sanz, Pablo; Homs, Oriol y Marín, Antoni (2018): “Treball. Situació i necessitats de la Joventut”. In Pau Serracant (coord.): Enquesta a la joventut de Catalunya 2017. Barcelona: Secretaria General de Joventut,Generalitat de Catalunya.

-Debels, Annelies (2008): "Transitions out of temporary jobs: Consequences for employment and poverty across Europe". In Ruud J. A. Muffels (ed.): Flexibility and Employment Security in Europe. Labour Markets in Transition. Cheltenham (Reino Unido): Edward Elgar.

-DG Education, Culture, Youth and Sport (2016): EU Youth Report 2015. Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones de la Unión Europea.

-Dietrich, Hans (2012): Youth Unemployment in Europe. Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Findings. Berlín: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

-Eurofound (2012): NEETs - Young people not in employment, education or training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-Eurofound (2013): Young people and temporary employment in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-Eurofound (2014): Mapping youth transitions in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-Eurofound (2015): Recent developments in temporary employment: Employment growth, wages and transitions. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-Fondeville, Nicole; Ward, Terry (2014): Scarring effects of the crisis. Bruselas: Comisión Europea. Research note 06/2014.

-Guillén, Ana M.; González Begega, Sergio; Luque Balbona, David (2016): "El modelo social europeo: Evolución y retos". In Eloísa del Pino and María Josefa Rubio Lara (dir.): Los estados del bienestar en la encrucijada. Políticas sociales en perspectiva comparada. Madrid: Tecnos.

-Hernanz, Virginia; Origo, Federica; Lodovici, Manuela S.; Toharia, Luis (2008): "Dreaming of a Permanent Job: the Transitions of Temporary Workers in Italy and Spain". In Ruud J. A. Muffels (ed.): Flexibility and Employment Security in Europe. LabourMarkets in Transition. Cheltenham, Reino Unido: Edward Elgar.

-Hummeluhr, N. (1997): Youth Guarantees in the Nordic Countries [documento en línea] http://www.oecd.org/edu/innovation-education/1925599.pdf

-Irwin, Sarah; Nilsen, Ann (eds.) (2018): Transitions to adulthood through recession. Youth and inequality in a European comparativa perspective. Londres: Routledge.

-Kovacheva, Siyka (2014): "Overview of the Implementation of the EU Youth Strategy in the Field of Employment". Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, 14(1): 5-24.

-López-Andreu, Martí; Verd, Joan Miquel (2016): "Employment instability and economic crisis in Spain: What are the elements that make a difference in the trajectories of younger adults?", European Societies, 18(4): 315-335.

-López-Andreu, Martí; Verd, Joan Miquel (2020): “The Impact of Neoliberal Policies During the Great Recession on Youth Transition Regimes in Spain and the UK”. Critical Sociology, 46(6): 835-850.

-Martin, John P.; Grubb, David (2001): What works and for whom: a review of OECD countries' experiences with active labour market policies. Paris: OECD.

-Moreno Mínguez, Almudena (2012): "La invisibilidad de los y las jóvenes en los servicios sociales del Estado de bienestar español". Revista de Estudios de Juventud, 97: 93-108.

-Moreno Mínguez, Almudena (2013): Informe Juventud en España 2012. Madrid: INJUVE

-O'Reilly, Jacqueline et al. (2015): "Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe: Flexibility, Education, Migration, Family Legacies, and EU Policy".SAGE Open, 5(1): 1-19.

-O’Reilly, Jacqueline; Leschke, Janine; Ortlieb, Renate; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin; Villa, Paola (2019): Youth labour in transition. Inequalities, mobility, and policies in Europe. Oxford: OUP.  

-Parreira do Amaral, Marcelo, et al. (2011): "Governance of educational trajectories in Europe. State of the Art Report". Working Paper No. 1. Project "Governance of educational trajectories in Europe" (GOETE). Frankfurt: University of Frankfurt.

-Rodríguez-Soler, Joan; Verd, Joan Miquel (2018): “El diseño y despliegue del sistema de garantía juvenil en España. Un análisis documental”. Revista Española de Sociología, 27 (3): 395-412.

-Sanchis, Enric; Simó, Carles (2014): "Paro estimado y paro sociológico". Sistema, 236: 49-69.

-Verd, Joan Miquel; López-Andreu, Martí (2012): "La inestabilidad del empleo en las trayectorias laborales. Un análisis cuantitativo". Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 138: 135-148.

-Verd, Joan Miquel; López-Andreu, Martí (2014): "Capabilities as an assessment tool for social policies. The example of the effects of non-formal training measures in Spain". En Hans Uwe Otto y Holger Ziegler (eds.): Critical Social Policy and the Capability Approach. Opladen (Alemania)-Farmington Hills (Michigan): Barbara Budrich.

-Verd, Joan Miquel; López-Andreu, Martí (2016): "Crisis del empleo y polarización de las trayectorias laborales. El caso de los adultos jóvenes en Cataluña". Papers. Revista de Sociología, 101 (1): 5-30.

-Verd, Joan Miquel; Yepes, Lídia; Vacchiano, Mattia (2016): "Trayectorias laborales y capital social en la población joven. Elementos para analizar la precariedad laboral juvenil más allá de los grandes focos". Anuario IET de trabajo y relaciones laborales, 3: 144-158.

-Verd, Joan Miquel; Vero, Josiane; López, Martí (2009): "Trayectorias laborales y enfoque de las capacidades. Elementos para una evaluación longitudinal de las políticas de protección social". Sociología del Trabajo, 67: 127-150.

-Verick, Sher (2009): "Who is hit hardest during a financial crisis? The vulnerability of young men and women to unemployment in an economic downturn". IZA Discussion Papers, No. 4359, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20091105792

-Walther, Andreas (2017): "Support across life course regimes. A comparative model of social work as construction of social problems, needs, and rights". Journal of Social Work, 17 (3), 277-301.

-Walther, Andreas; Parreira do Amaral, Marcelo; Cuconato, Morena; Dale, Roger (2017): Governance of Educational Trajectories in Europe. Pathways, Policy and Practice. Londres: Bloomsbury

-Wolbers, Maarten H.J. (2007): "Transitions in 11 European Countries Patterns of Labour Market Entry:Comparative Perspective on School-to-Work". Acta Sociologica, 50: 189-210


Thematic Area IV.

-AAVV (2010): Manual per a la gestió de politiques de promoció econòmica i desenvolupament local, COLPIS / Departament d’Economia i Finances de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona.

-AAVV (2012): Crisis y políticas locales (número monográfico).P3T. Journal of Public Policies and Territory, 1(1).

-CEDEFOP (2009): Skills for Europe’s future: anticipating occupational skill needs. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

-Crespo, Eduardo; Serrano, Amparo (2013): “Las paradojas de las políticas de empleo europeas de la justicia a la terapia”. Universitas psychologica, 12 (4): 1111-1124.

-European Commission (2015): Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2014. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-European Commission (2012): New skills and jobs in Europe: Pathways towards full employment. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

-European Commission (2011): Employment Policy (Social Europe guide vol. 1). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

-Franco, Lluís (coord.) (2016): Les polítiques d’ocupació: teoria i práctica. Barcelona: Ed. UOC. 

-Green, Andy (2011): “Modelos de formación a lo largo de la vida y la sociedad del conocimiento”. Papers. Revista de Sociología, 96 (4): 1075-1096.

-Koch, Max; Fritz, Martin (eds.) (2013): Non-standard employment in Europe: paradigms, prevalence and policy responses. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

-Kolosy, Katalin (2013): “European Union: monitoring and evaluating local development in the 2014-2020 programming period”. P3T. Journal of Public Policies and Territory, 2 (4), 25-33.

-Lope, Andreu (2013): “Las políticas comunitarias y el enfoque territorial: UE 2014-2020. El empleo, ¿una prioridad en las políticas locales”. P3T. Journal of Public Policies and Territory, 2 (4).

-Lope, Andreu (2015): “Las políticas activas de empleo: el nuevo modelo de políticas activas”. En Fausto Miguélez (coord.): Diagnóstico socio-económico sobre las políticas de empleo en España, 2012-2014. http://ddd.uab.cat/record/142865

-Martínez López, Antonio (2011): “El discurso de la UE en materia de políticas de empleo y exclusión social. Análisis sociológico de la Estrategia Europea de Empleo”. Papers. Revista de Sociología , 96 (1): 35-54.

-Miguélez, Fausto (2017): “Políticas de empleo para salir de la crisis: resultados de un Delphi”.Anuario IET de trabajo y relaciones laborales, 4: 45-64.

-Rodríguez Álvarez, José Manuel (coord.) (2001): Experiencias prácticas de desarrollo local. Madrid: Bayer Hermanos.

-Santamaría, Elsa; Serrano, Amparo (2016): Precarización e individualización del trabajo: claves para entender y transformar la realidad laboral. Barcelona: UOC.

-Serrano-Pascual, Amparo; Jepsen, Maria (eds.) (2019): The Deconstruction of employment as a political question: Employment' as a Floating Signifier. Cham: Palgrave.

-SOC (Servei Català d’Ocupació) (2011): Diagnosi per a l’estrategia catalana per a l’ocupació: Informe territorial del mercat de treball, adequació de les politiques actives d’ocupació a Catalunya i definición dels eixos estratègics 2012-2020, SOC, Departament d’Empresa i Ocupació de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

-Zukerstinova, Alena; Strieska-Ilina, Olga (eds.) (2007): Towards European Skills Needs Forecasting. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.



No specific software will be used.